MS101 Glossary

 Old book, open, with eyeglasses laying on topThis gloss­ary is a work in pro­gress, assembled from a vari­ety of sources, mostly stand­ards, but a few web­sites and online dic­tion­ar­ies as well. We have provided the ori­gin­al sources wherever pos­sible. If you feel the source is incor­rect, of if a term is incor­rectly ref­er­enced, please let us know!

We have included some defin­i­tions just because we thought they were inter­est­ing — many of those from the Ford Motor Company fall into that group but could also be use­ful for describ­ing machinery and haz­ards.

Want to add some­thing that’s miss­ing? Send it to us, includ­ing the full source cita­tion, and we will gladly add it!

Additional Official Sources

There are three addi­tion­al sources of defin­i­tions, stand­ard graph­ics and oth­er inform­a­tion that you may not know about:

  1. ISO Online Browsing Platform – The Online Browsing Platform is a pub­licly avail­able ser­vice from ISO that per­mits users to search ISO Standards, Collections, Graphical Symbols, Terms and Definitions, and Country Codes at no charge.
  2. IEC Electropedia – Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary, or IEC 60050, this online ser­vice gives users dir­ect access to the most cur­rent terms and defin­i­tions in the elec­tro­tech­nic­al sec­tor.
  3. IEC Glossary – A com­pil­a­tion of elec­tro­tech­nic­al ter­min­o­logy in English and French extrac­ted from the “Terms and Definitions” clause of IEC pub­lic­a­tions (those issued since 2002). In some cases, terms and defin­i­tions have also been col­lec­ted from earli­er pub­lic­a­tions (e.g. from TC 37, 77, 86 and CISPR). The data­base con­tains some 65 000 items drawn from 3 000 pub­lic­a­tions, with new ones being added on a con­tinu­ous basis.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M NPR S T U V W X Y Z


A

accept­able risk
risk that may be read­ily allowed by affected per­sons, based on an based on an informed decision Note 1: Accepted risks may be sub­ject to peri­od­ic mon­it­or­ing and reduc­tion, par­tic­u­larly when the val­ues of soci­ety change, or when new inform­a­tion regard­ing the risk becomes avail­able, thus mak­ing pre­vi­ously accept­able risks unac­cept­able. Note 2: Where resid­ual risk is thought to be extremely low, risks are often accep­ted based on a pre­sump­tion of safety rather than an informed decision about a par­tic­u­lar risk. MS101 Note: This defin­i­tion is a pro­posed defin­i­tion that has not been offi­cially pub­lished, thus the lack of cita­tion. :-)See ‘tol­er­able risk’
Accessible
  1. (as applied to equip­ment) – Admitting close approach; not guarded by locked doors, elev­a­tion, or oth­er effect­ive means.
  2. (as applied to wir­ing meth­ods) – Capable of being removed or exposed without dam­aging the build­ing struc­ture or fin­ish or not per­man­ently closed in by the struc­ture or fin­ish of the build­ing.
  3. Readily (Readily Accessible) – Capable of being reached quickly for oper­a­tion, renew­al, or inspec­tions without requir­ing those to whom ready access is requis­ite to actions such as to use tools, to climb over or remove obstacles, or to resort to port­able lad­ders, and so forth.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014

Access time (time for access to a danger zone)
The time taken to access the haz­ard­ous machine parts after ini­ti­ation of the stop com­mand by the inter­lock­ing device, as cal­cu­lated on the basis of an approach speed the value of which may be chosen, for each par­tic­u­lar case, tak­ing into account the para­met­ers giv­en in prEN 999 ‘Safety of machinery — The pos­i­tion­ing of pro­tect­ive equip­ment in respect of approach speeds of parts of the human body’. EN 1088, §3.9
acknow­ledged rule of tech­no­logy
tech­nic­al pro­vi­sion acknow­ledged by a major­ity of rep­res­ent­at­ive experts as reflect­ing the state of the art

NOTE A norm­at­ive doc­u­ment on a tech­nic­al sub­ject, if pre­pared with the coöper­a­tion of con­cerned interests by con­sulta­tion and con­sensus pro­ced­ures, is pre­sumed to con­sti­tute an acknow­ledged rule of tech­no­logy at the time of its approv­al.

ISO Guide 2:2004, §1.5

See ‘State of the Art’

Actuator
sep­ar­ate part of an inter­lock­ing device which trans­mits the state of the guard (closed or not closed) to the actu­at­ing sys­tem NOTE 1 A guard moun­ted cam, a key, a shaped tongue, a reflect­or, a mag­net, an RFID tag are examples of actu­at­ors. NOTE 2 See also Annex A to E. NOTE 3 See examples of actu­at­ors in Figure 2. ISO 14119, §3.12 [See also Coded Actuator]
Actuating System
part of the inter­lock­ing device which trans­mits the pos­i­tion of the actu­at­or and changes the state of the out­put sys­tem NOTE 1 A roller plun­ger, a cam link­age sys­tem, an optic­al, induct­ive or capa­cit­ive sensor are examples of an actu­at­ing sys­tem. NOTE 2 See examples of actu­at­ing sys­tems in Figure 2. ISO 14119, §3.14
Adequate risk reduc­tion
the achieve­ment of a risk level unlikely to give rise to a situ­ation that could res­ult in harm to any per­son. See ‘accept­able risk’.
Adjustable bar­ri­er guard
a fixed guard that is adjustable as a whole or that incor­por­ates adjustable parts. The adjust­ment to the guard remains fixed dur­ing oper­a­tion. CSA Z432-​04, §3 [See Guard]
Alive
See Live
ALARP
As Low As Reason­ably Practic­able”. The ALARP Principle comes from UK OHS law:

The main tests that are applied in reg­u­lat­ing indus­tri­al risks are very sim­il­ar to those we apply in day to day life. They involve determ­in­ing:

  1. wheth­er a giv­en risk is so great or the out­come so unac­cept­able that it must be refused alto­geth­er; or
  2. wheth­er the risk is, or has been made, so small that no fur­ther pre­cau­tion is neces­sary; or
  3. if a risk falls between these two states, that it has been reduced to the low­est level prac­tic­able, bear­ing in mind the bene­fits flow­ing from its accept­ance and tak­ing into account the costs of any fur­ther reduc­tion. The injunc­tion laid down in safety law is that any risk must be reduced so far as reas­on­ably prac­tic­able, or to a level which is ‘as low as reas­on­ably prac­tic­able’ (ALARP prin­ciple).”

The Tolerability of Risk from Nuclear Power Stations, UK Health and Safety Executive, HMSO OPSI, London, 1992

Amplitude
The quant­ity or amount of energy pro­duced by a vibrat­ing com­pon­ent (G-​force). An extreme vibra­tion has a high amp­litude. A mild vibra­tion has a low amp­litude. [See Intensity] Ford Motor Company
anti­valence
Switching func­tion, for which a sensor pro­duces two out­put sig­nals (and there­fore two out­put func­tions): “nor­mally open” and “nor­mally closed” (NC – nor­mally closed con­tact). When an object is detec­ted, both out­puts are switched to their oppos­ite state. [Ed. note: trans­lated from French and para­phrased for clar­ity.]  Balluff Company
At height
access pos­i­tions loc­ated 2.5 m above the sur­round­ing sur­face or land­ing. CSA Z432-​04, §3
Approved
Acceptable to the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
An organ­iz­a­tion, office, or indi­vidu­al respons­ible for enfor­cing the require­ments of a code or stand­ard, or for approv­ing equip­ment, mater­i­als, an install­a­tion, or a pro­ced­ure.

Informational Note: The phrase “author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion,” or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA doc­u­ments in a broad man­ner, since jur­is­dic­tions and approv­al agen­cies vary, as do their respons­ib­il­it­ies. Where pub­lic safety is primary, the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion may be a fed­er­al, state, loc­al, or oth­er region­al depart­ment or indi­vidu­al such as a fire chief; fire mar­shal; chief of a fire pre­ven­tion bur­eau, labor depart­ment, or health depart­ment; build­ing offi­cial; elec­tric­al inspect­or; or oth­ers hav­ing stat­utory author­ity. For insur­ance pur­poses, an insur­ance inspec­tion depart­ment, rat­ing bur­eau, or oth­er insur­ance com­pany rep­res­ent­at­ive may be the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion. In many cir­cum­stances, the prop­erty own­er or his or her des­ig­nated agent assumes the role of the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion; at gov­ern­ment install­a­tions, the com­mand­ing officer or depart­ment­al offi­cial may be the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014

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B

Barrier (fixed dis­tance) guard — a fixed guard that does not com­pletely enclose the haz­ard but that reduces access by vir­tue of its phys­ic­al dimen­sions and its dis­tance from the haz­ard. CSA Z432-​04, §3 [See Guard]

Boom — Low fre­quency or low pitched noise often accom­pan­ied by a vibra­tion. [Also refer to Drumming.] Ford Motor Company

Buffet /​ Buffeting — Strong noise fluc­tu­ations caused by gust­ing winds. An example would be wind gusts against the side glass. Ford Motor Company

Buzz — A low-​pitched sound like that from a bee. Often a metal­lic or hard plastic hum­ming sound. Also describes a high-​frequency vibra­tion. Vibration feels sim­il­ar to an elec­tric razor. Ford Motor Company

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C

cable
assembly of one or more con­duct­ors and/​or optic­al fibres, with a pro­tect­ive cov­er­ing and pos­sibly filling, insu­lat­ing and pro­tect­ive mater­i­al [IEV 151 – 12-​38] [IEC 62491:2008, 3.2]
CE Marking
CE Marking is the sym­bol as shown on the top of this page. The let­ters “CE” are the abbre­vi­ation of French phrase “Conformité Européene” which lit­er­ally means “European Conformity”.
The term ini­tially used was “EC Mark” and it was offi­cially replaced by “CE Marking” in the Directive 93/​68/​EEC in 1993. “CE Marking” is now used in all EU offi­cial doc­u­ments.
  1. CE Marking on a product is a manufacturer’s declar­a­tion that the product com­plies with the essen­tial require­ments of the rel­ev­ant European health, safety and envir­on­ment­al pro­tec­tion legis­la­tion, in prac­tice by many of the so-​called Product Directives.
  2. CE Marking on a product indic­ates to gov­ern­ment­al offi­cials that the product may be leg­ally placed on the mar­ket in their coun­try.
  3. CE Marking on a product ensures the free move­ment of the product with­in the EFTA & European Union (EU) single mar­ket (includ­ing totally 30 EEA* coun­tries), and
  4. CE Marking on a product per­mits the with­draw­al of the non-​conforming products by EEA cus­toms and enforcement/​vigilance author­it­ies.
Certification
  1. Product cer­ti­fic­a­tion is the pro­cess of eval­u­at­ing a (usu­ally elec­tric­al) product against the require­ments of a Certification Standard, using stand­ard­ized safety test meth­ods in an accred­ited Certification Laboratory. This pro­cess is typ­ic­ally called a “cer­ti­fic­a­tion scheme” in the product cer­ti­fic­a­tion industry. At the end of the pro­cess, products that suc­cess­fully meet the require­ments are per­mit­ted to be marked with the Certification Body’s trade­mark under license. Ongoing fact­ory audits are required to ensure that the products pro­duced do not vary from the samples sub­mit­ted for test­ing. Product Certification is typ­ic­ally used for series pro­duc­tion of 200 or more units annu­ally. See Product Certification. Wikipedia, [online].For pro­duc­tion volumes below 200 units per year, Field Evaluation is nor­mally the most appro­pri­ate approach to com­pli­ance.
  2. Third-​party attest­a­tion related to products, pro­cesses, sys­tems or per­sons
    Note 1 to entry: Certification of a man­age­ment sys­tem is some­times also called regis­tra­tion.
    Note 2 to entry: Certification is applic­able to all objects of con­form­ity assess­ment except for con­form­ity assess­ment bod­ies them­selves, to which accred­it­a­tion is applic­able.

ISO/​IEC 17000:2004, 5.5

IEC Electropedia

Chatter — A pro­nounced series of rap­idly repeat­ing rat­tling or click­ing sounds. Ford Motor Company

Chirp — A short-​duration, high-​pitched noise asso­ci­ated with a slip­ping drive belt.Ford Motor Company

Chuckle— A repe­ti­tious, low-​pitched sound. A loud chuckle is usu­ally described as a knock.Ford Motor Company

Click — A sharp, brief, non-​resonant sound, sim­il­ar to actu­at­ing a ball point pen. Ford Motor Company

Clonk — A hydraul­ic knock­ing sound. Sound occurs with air pock­ets in a hydraul­ic sys­tem. Also described as ham­mer­ing. Ford Motor Company

Clunk — A heavy or dull, short-​duration, low-​frequency sound. Occurs mostly on a vehicle that is accel­er­at­ing or decel­er­at­ing abruptly. Also described as a thunk. Ford Motor Company

Code of prac­tice — doc­u­ment that recom­mends prac­tices or pro­ced­ures for the design, man­u­fac­ture, install­a­tion, main­ten­ance or util­iz­a­tion of equip­ment, struc­tures or products

NOTE A code of prac­tice may be a stand­ard, a part of a stand­ard or inde­pend­ent of a stand­ard. ISO Guide 2:2003, §3.5

Coded Actuator— actu­at­or which is spe­cially designed (e. g. by shape) to actu­ate a cer­tain pos­i­tion switch:

  1. low level coded actu­at­or — coded actu­at­or for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be 1 to 9;
  2. medi­um level coded actu­at­or — coded actu­at­or for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be 10 to <= 1 000;
  3. high level coded actu­at­or — coded actu­at­or for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be > 1 000.

ISO 14119, §3.13 [See also Actuator]

Commissioning 

  1. pro­ced­ures pri­or, or related, to hand­ing over a product ready for put­ting into ser­vice, includ­ing final accept­ance test­ing; hand­ing over of draw­ings, instruc­tions for oper­a­tion, main­ten­ance and repair; if neces­sary, instruct­ing per­son­nel IEC 62079:2001, 3.2
  2. pro­ced­ure by which a sys­tem is form­ally accep­ted by the pur­chaser. ISO 4414:2010, 3.1
  3. pro­ced­ures pri­or, or related , to the hand­ing over of a product ready for put­ting into ser­vice, includ­ing final accept­ance test­ing, the hand­ing over of all doc­u­ment­a­tion rel­ev­ant to the use of the product and, if neces­sary, instruct­ing per­son­nel IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.3

Common cause fail­ures — fail­ures of dif­fer­ent items, res­ult­ing from a single event, where these fail­ures are not con­sequences of each oth­er. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Common mode fail­ures — fail­ures of items char­ac­ter­ized by the same fault mode. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Common sense — Can be expressed as a func­tion of four ele­ments:

com­mon sense = know­ledge + exper­i­ence + atten­tion + expos­ure

Where any ele­ment is miss­ing or insuf­fi­cient, there can be no com­mon sense.

 Wynand Serfontaine and oth­ers on the LinkedIN Safety Engineering Network

MS101 NOTE: It is import­ant to recog­nize that the pre­ced­ing defin­i­tion will res­ult in a dif­fer­ent out­come for every indi­vidu­al to whom it is applied, since every indi­vidu­al has dif­fer­ent know­ledge, exper­i­ence, atten­tion (focus) and expos­ure to the spe­cif­ic haz­ard being con­sidered. This illus­trates the prob­lem with try­ing to use the ‘common-​sense’ approach in risk con­trol. As Mark Twain once said, “The prob­lem with com­mon sense is that it’s not too com­mon.”

Alternate Definition – Common sense is that unique body of know­ledge and exper­i­ence related to haz­ards com­monly exper­i­enced in day-​to-​day life by an indi­vidu­al. D. Nix, 2005

Complementary pro­tect­ive meas­ures— Protective meas­ures that are neither inher­ently safe design meas­ures, nor safe­guard­ing (imple­ment­a­tion of guards and/​or pro­tect­ive devices), nor inform­a­tion for use may have to be imple­men­ted as required by the inten­ded use and the reas­on­ably fore­see­able mis­use of the machine. Such meas­ures shall include, but not be lim­ited to,

  1. emer­gency stop;
  2. means of res­cue of trapped per­sons; and
  3. means of energy isol­a­tion and dis­sip­a­tion.

CSA Z432-​04 (R2009), §6.2.3.5.3

See also “Protective Measure

See also ISO 12100:2010, §6.3.5

Compliance – “Compliance” is used to describe the action of doing what is required (e. g. an organ­iz­a­tion “com­plies” by mak­ing some­thing or by ful­filling a reg­u­lat­ory require­ment). ISO/​IEC 17000:2004, §3 [See Conformity]

com­pon­ent – product used as a con­stitu­ent in an assembled product, sys­tem or plant [SOURCE: IEC 81346 – 1 :2009, defin­i­tion 3.7] IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.4

Conductor

  1. Mechanical. The com­pon­ents that carry (trans­mit) a vibra­tion fre­quency from the ori­gin­at­or to the react­or. Ford Motor Company
  2. Bare. A con­duct­or hav­ing no cov­er­ing or elec­tric­al insu­la­tion what­so­ever. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  3. Covered. A con­duct­or encased with­in mater­i­al of com­pos­i­tion or thick­ness that is not recog­nized by this Code as elec­tric­al insu­la­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  4. Insulated. A con­duct­or encased with­in mater­i­al of com­pos­i­tion and thick­ness that is recog­nized by this Code as elec­tric­al insu­la­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  5. con­duct­or (of a cable) – part of a cable which has the spe­cif­ic func­tion of car­ry­ing cur­rent
    [IEV 461 – 01-​01] [IEC 62491:2008, 3.1] See also core.

con­form­ity — ful­fill­ment of spe­cified require­ments
Note 1 to entry: The term “con­form­ance” is syn­onym­ous but deprec­ated.
IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.5

con­sequence

  1. out­come of an event (3.5.1.3) affect­ing object­ives
    NOTE 1 An event can lead to a range of con­sequences.
    NOTE 2 A con­sequence can be cer­tain or uncer­tain and can have pos­it­ive or neg­at­ive effects on object­ives.
    NOTE 3 Consequences can be expressed qual­it­at­ively or quant­it­at­ively.
    NOTE 4 Initial con­sequences can escal­ate through knock-​on effects.
    Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.3. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009.
  2. out­come of an occur­rence of a par­tic­u­lar set of cir­cum­stances
    Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one con­sequence from one event. IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.6

[See also “sever­ity”]

Conformity – “Conformity” means ful­fill­ment of a require­ment. Specified require­ments may be stated in norm­at­ive doc­u­ments as reg­u­la­tions, stand­ards and tech­nic­al spe­cific­a­tions. ISO/​IEC 17000:2004, §3

Control Circuit

  1. The cir­cuit of a con­trol appar­at­us or sys­tem that car­ries the elec­tric sig­nals dir­ect­ing the per­form­ance of the con­trol­ler but does not carry the main power cur­rent. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  2. (of a machine) cir­cuit used for the con­trol, includ­ing mon­it­or­ing, of a machine and the elec­tric­al equip­ment. Safety of machinery — Electrical equip­ment of machines — Part 1: General Requirements, §3.8. IEC 60204 – 1. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Geneva. 2006.

Control Guard – See “Interlocking guard with a start func­tion

core – assembly com­pris­ing a con­duct­or with its own insu­la­tion (and screens if any)
[IEV 461 – 04-​04] [IEC 62491:2008, 3.3] See also: con­duct­or

Cracks — A mid-​frequency sound, related to squeak. Sound var­ies with tem­per­at­ure con­di­tions. Ford Motor Company

Creak — A metal­lic squeak. Ford Motor Company

Critical safety func­tion — a safety func­tion of a machine whose fail­ure can res­ult in an imme­di­ate increase of risk. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Current-​carrying — See “Live

Cycle — The pro­cess of a vibrat­ing com­pon­ent going through a com­plete range of motion and return­ing to the start­ing point. [See Frequency]  Ford Motor Company

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D

Danger zone — the zone around the machine (front, back, sides, top, and bot­tom) where a haz­ard is cre­ated by the motion of the machine com­pon­ents. CSA Z432-​04, §3 See ‘Hazard Zone’.

Deadman or Dead Man — Obsolete term used to refer to an Enabling Device. Use of the term ‘dead­man’ should be avoided. See ‘Enabling Device

Decibel (dB)

  • A unit of meas­ure­ment, refer­ring to sound pres­sure level, abbre­vi­ated dB. Ford Motor Company
  • a unit used to meas­ure the intens­ity of a sound or the power level of an elec­tric­al sig­nal by com­par­ing it with a giv­en level on a log­ar­ithmic scale. New Oxford American Dictionary
  • a log­ar­ithmic unit of sound intens­ity; 10 times the log­ar­ithm of the ratio of the sound intens­ity to some ref­er­ence intens­ity. Wordnet 3.0 2006

defeat – action that makes inter­lock­ing devices inop­er­at­ive or bypasses them with the res­ult that a machine is used in a man­ner not inten­ded by the design­er or without the neces­sary safety meas­ures. ISO 14119

defeat in a reas­on­ably fore­see­able man­ner– defeat of an inter­lock­ing device either manu­ally or by using read­ily avail­able objects.

NOTE 1 This defin­i­tion includes the remov­al of switches or actu­at­ors using tools that are needed for the inten­ded use of the machine or that are read­ily avail­able (screw drivers, wrenches, hexagon keys, pli­ers).

NOTE 2 Readily avail­able objects for sub­sti­tute actu­ation can be:

  • screws, needles, sheet-​metal pieces;
  • objects in daily use such as keys, coins, adhes­ive tape, string and wire;
  • spare keys for the trapped-​key inter­lock­ing devices;
  • spare actu­at­ors.

ISO 14119

dir­ect con­tact – elec­tric con­tact of per­sons or anim­als with live parts

[IEC 60050 – 195: 1998, 195 – 06-​03] EN 60519 – 1:2006, 3.1

dir­ect drive – a con­nec­tion between actu­at­or and con­tact ele­ment that excludes any pre-​travel of the actu­at­or IEC 60947 – 5-​1, Ed. 3, 2009 §2.4.4.3

[Also see “Positive Drive”]

dir­ect open­ing action (of a con­tact ele­ment) – achieve­ment of con­tact sep­ar­a­tion as the dir­ect res­ult of a spe­cified move­ment of the switch actu­at­or through non-​resilient mem­bers (for example not depend­ent upon springs) IEC 60947 – 5-​1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.2
[See also “Direct Drive” “Force Guided”, “Mechanically Linked”, “Positively Guided”, “Positive Drive”]

dir­ect open­ing travel – travel from the begin­ning of actu­ation of the actu­at­or and the pos­i­tion when the dir­ect open­ing action of the open­ing con­tacts is com­pleted  IEC 60947 – 5-​1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.3

dir­ect open­ing force (or moment) – actu­ation force, or actu­at­ing moment for a rotary con­trol switch, applied to the actu­at­or for the dir­ect open­ing action IEC 60947 – 5-​1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.4

Disconnecting Means – A device, or group of devices, or oth­er means by which the con­duct­ors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nec­ted from their source of sup­ply. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Drone — A low-​frequency, steady sound, like a freez­er com­pressor. Also described as a moan. Ford Motor Company

Drumming — A cyc­ling, low-​frequency, rhythmic noise often accom­pan­ied by a sen­sa­tion of pres­sure on the ear drums. Also described as a low rumble, boom or rolling thun­der. Ford Motor Company

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E

E/​E/​PES — elec­tric­al and/​or elec­tron­ic and/​or pro­gram­mable elec­tron­ic sys­tem
ISO 25119 – 1:2010

emer­gency con­trol — con­trol func­tion that brings a sys­tem to a safe con­di­tion ISO 4414:2010, 3.2

Emergency situ­ation — an imme­di­ately haz­ard­ous situ­ation that needs to be ended or aver­ted quickly in order to pre­vent injury or dam­age. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Emergency stop 

  1. A func­tion that is inten­ded to avert harm or to reduce exist­ing haz­ards to per­sons, machinery, or work in pro­gress. CSA Z432-​04, §3.
  2. The oper­a­tion of a cir­cuit that over­rides all oth­er robot con­trols, removes drive power, causes all mov­ing parts to stop, and removes power from oth­er haz­ard­ous func­tions present in the safe­guarded space but does not cause addi­tion­al haz­ards. ANSI RIA 15.06 – 99, §3.11
  3. The oper­a­tion of a cir­cuit that over­rides all oth­er robot con­trols, removes drive power, causes all mov­ing parts to stop, and removes power from oth­er haz­ard­ous func­tions present in the safe­guarded space but does not cause addi­tion­al haz­ards. CSA Z434-​03, §3.

Emergency stop but­ton — A red mushroom-​headed but­ton that, when activ­ated, will imme­di­ately start the emer­gency stop sequence. CSA Z432-​04, §3.

Emergency stop device — Manually actu­ated con­trol device used to ini­ti­ate an emer­gency stop func­tion. ISO 13850 2006, §3.2

Emergency Switching Off — An emer­gency oper­a­tion inten­ded to switch off the sup­ply of the elec­tric­al energy to all or part of an install­a­tion. NFPA 79 – 07, §3.3.37.

Emergency switch­ing off device — Manually actu­ated con­trol device used to switch off the sup­ply of elec­tric­al energy to all or a part of an install­a­tion where a risk of elec­tric shock or anoth­er risk of elec­tric­al ori­gin is involved. IEC 60204 – 1, 2005, §3.18

Enabling device

  1. a device that is designed to ini­ti­ate a machine action or allow the flow of energy to a machine. CSA Z432-​04, §3
  2. addi­tion­al manu­ally oper­ated device used in con­junc­tion with a start con­trol and which, when con­tinu­ously actu­ated, allows a machine to func­tion ISO 12100:2010 §3.28.2
  3. A manu­ally oper­ated device which when con­tinu­ously activ­ated, per­mits motion. ANSI RIA R15.06 – 1999 §3.12

See ‘dead­man con­trol’.

Energy-​isolating device

  1. a mech­an­ic­al device that phys­ic­ally pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of energy, includ­ing but not lim­ited to the fol­low­ing: a manu­ally oper­ated elec­tric­al cir­cuit break­er; a dis­con­nect switch; a manu­ally oper­ated switch by which the con­duct­ors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nec­ted from all ungroun­ded sup­ply con­duct­ors; a line valve; a block; and oth­er devices used to block or isol­ate energy (push-​button select­or switches and oth­er control-​type devices are not energy-​isolating devices). CSA Z460 2005
  2. A mech­an­ic­al device that phys­ic­ally pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of energy, includ­ing but not lim­ited to the fol­low­ing: a manu­ally oper­ated elec­tric­al cir­cuit break­er, a dis­con­nect switch, a manu­ally oper­ated switch by which the con­duct­ors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nec­ted from all ungroun­ded sup­ply con­duct­ors and, in addi­tion, no pole can be oper­ated inde­pend­ently; a line valve; a block; and any sim­il­ar device used to block or isol­ate energy. ANSI Z244.1 – 2003
  3. A device that phys­ic­ally pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of energy, includ­ing but not lim­ited to the fol­low­ing: A manu­ally oper­ated elec­tric­al cir­cuit break­er; a dis­con­nect switch; a manu­ally oper­ated switch by which the con­duct­ors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nec­ted from all ungroun­ded sup­ply con­duct­ors, and, in addi­tion, no pole can be oper­ated inde­pend­ently; a line valve; a block; and any sim­il­ar device used to block or isol­ate energy. Push but­tons, select­or switches and oth­er con­trol cir­cuit type devices are not energy isol­at­ing devices. 29 CFR 1901.147

Energy source – Any source of elec­tric­al, mech­an­ic­al, hydraul­ic, pneu­mat­ic, chem­ic­al, thermal, or oth­er energy. 29 CFR 1910.147

See also “Hazardous Energy”

equi­po­ten­tial bond­ing – pro­vi­sion of elec­tric con­nec­tions between con­duct­ive parts, inten­ded to put them at a sub­stan­tially equal poten­tial
[IEC 60050 – 195:1998, 195 – 01-​10, mod­i­fied], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.14

equi­po­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem (EBS)interconnection of con­duct­ive parts provid­ing equi­po­ten­tial bond­ing between those parts
NOTE If an equi­po­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem is earthed, it forms part of an earth­ing arrange­ment.
[IEC 60050 – 195:1998, 195 – 02-​22], en60519-1:2011. 3.15

exposed

  1. (con­duct­ive part) con­duct­ive part of elec­tric­al equip­ment, which can be touched and which is not live in nor­mal oper­a­tion, but which can become live under fault con­di­tions
    [IEC 60050 – 826:2004, 826 – 12-​10, mod­i­fied], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.16
  2. (as applied to live parts) Capable of being inad­vert­ently touched or approached near­er than a safe dis­tance by a per­son.
    Informational Note: This term applies to parts that are not suit­ably guarded, isol­ated, or insu­lated. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.
  3. (as applied to wir­ing meth­ods) On or attached to the sur­face or behind pan­els designed to allow access. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

extraneous con­duct­ive part – con­duct­ive part not form­ing part of the elec­tric­al install­a­tion and liable to intro­duce an elec­tric poten­tial, gen­er­ally the elec­tric poten­tial of a loc­al earth
[IEC 60050 – 826:2004, 826 – 12-​11], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.17

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F

Fail-​safe stand­still mon­it­or
A fail-​safe device which provides a sig­nal that may be used to release locked guards, or con­trol a safe access con­di­tion when a machine has come to a stand­still. In the case of a fault, e.g., a defect­ive rota­tion sensor or intern­al fault in the stand­still mon­it­or­ing device, the fail-​safe stand­still mon­it­or fails into a safe state. See also “stand­still mon­it­or”. Adapted  from Schmersal Canada Ltd.
Field Evaluation (FE)
Field Evaluation is a ser­vice provided by accred­ited inspec­tion bod­ies to bridge the gap between uncer­ti­fied equip­ment and a code-​compliant install­a­tion accept­able to the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). Field eval­u­ation is used in North America to per­mit small volume (1 – 200 units per year) pro­duc­tion of elec­tric­al products to be eval­u­ated by qual­i­fied inspect­ors and “field labelled” to show com­pli­ance with the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) in the US, or the Canadian Electrical Code (CSA C22.1) in Canada. Inspection is con­duc­ted by an accred­ited Inspection Body. In the US, these are known as Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTL), and in Canada as Accredited Inspection Bodies.
FIT (unit) — Failure in Time
1 FIT = 1 x 10-9 failures/​h. The FIT unit finds its ori­gin in reli­ab­il­ity engin­eer­ing for the semi­con­duct­or industry. In data­sheets and cer­ti­fic­ates for SIL rated equip­ment (mainly sensors, actu­at­ors and the like inten­ded for use in the pro­cess industry accord­ing to IEC 61511) the unit FIT is com­monly used for present­ing fail­ure rate data (lambda val­ues). The FIT unit was developed to ease writ­ing and read­ing the inform­a­tion. Most instru­ments spe­cific­ally designed for pro­cess industry SIL applic­a­tions have fail­ure rates in the range of 1 x 10-9/​h to 3 x 10-6/​h. When expressed using FIT these val­ues are writ­ten as 10 to 3000 FIT.  This is easi­er to read, and easi­er to com­pare data­sheets for instru­ments, etc. Bert Brouwers, LinkedIn​.com, IEC 62061 and ISO 13849 machinery func­tion­al safety group, accessed 28-​Sep-​2011.
Fixed guard
a guard kept in place (i.e., closed or attached to a fixed sur­face) either per­man­ently (e.g., by weld­ing) or by means of fasten­ers (screws, nuts, etc.), mak­ing remov­al or open­ing impossible without using tools. CSA Z432-​04, §3
[See also “Guard”]
Flutter
Mid to high inter­mit­tent sound due to air flow. Similar to a flag flap­ping in the wind. Ford Motor Company
Force Guided, forced con­tacts
deprec­ated. See “Mechanically Linked”.
Alternate Definition – Force Guided Relays And Mirror Contact Relays
Force-​guided (or positively-​guided) relays have con­tacts that are mech­an­ic­ally inter­locked such that two con­tacts on the relays will not con­tra­dict each oth­er, even in the event that the relay welds. Force-​guided relays have con­tacts that are force-​guided/​mechanically linked con­form­ing to IEC60947-​1 – 1 as required for use in safety-​related con­trol sys­tems.
The mir­ror con­tact relays con­form to EN 60947 – 4-​1 by using a com­bin­a­tion of the relay block and the aux­il­i­ary con­tact block.
Force Guided Relays And Mirror Contact Relays”, [online]. OMRON STI. Accessed: 6-​Jun-​2013. Available: http://​www​.sti​.com/​f​o​r​c​e​-​g​u​i​d​e​d​-​r​e​l​a​ys/.
Frequency
The rate at which a cycle occurs with­in a giv­en time. [See CycleFord Motor Company
fre­quency
num­ber of events (3.5.1.3) or out­comes per defined unit of time
NOTE Frequency can be applied to past events (3.5.1.3) or to poten­tial future events, where it can be used as a meas­ure of like­li­hood (3.6.1.1) /​ prob­ab­il­ity (3.6.1.3).
Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.5. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009.
Functional Safety
  1. Part of the over­all safety relat­ing to the EUC and the EUC con­trol sys­tem that depends on the safety-​related sys­tems and extern­al risk reduc­tion facil­it­ies oper­at­ing cor­rectly in response to their inputs.
    Out of con­trol — Why con­trol sys­tems go wrong and how to pre­vent fail­ure. HSG 238.
  2. Functional safety is part of the over­all safety that depends on a sys­tem or equip­ment oper­at­ing cor­rectly in response to its inputs. The term “safety-​related” is used to describe sys­tems that are required to per­form a spe­cif­ic func­tion or func­tions to ensure risks are kept at an accep­ted level. Such func­tions are, by defin­i­tion, safety func­tions. Two types of require­ments are neces­sary toachieve func­tion­al safety:
    • safety func­tion require­ments (what the func­tion does;) and
    • safety integ­rity require­ments (the like­li­hood of a safety func­tion being per­formed sat­is­fact­or­ily).

    The safety func­tion require­ments are derived from the haz­ard ana­lys­is and the safety integ­rity require­ments are derived from a risk assess­ment. The high­er the level of safety integ­rity, the lower the like­li­hood of dan­ger­ous fail­ure. “Functional safety of electrical/​electronic/​programmable elec­tron­ic safety-​related sys­tems – Part 0: Functional safety and IEC 61508”, IEC/​TR 61508 – 0 Edition 1, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 2005

  3. sys­tem that per­forms in a way that does not present an unreas­on­able risk of injury to oper­at­ors or bystand­ers
    ISO 25119 – 1:2010, §3.20
func­tion­al safety concept
entire col­lec­tion of safety-​related func­tions and inter­ac­tions neces­sary to achieve a desired beha­viour
Note 1 to entry: It is developed dur­ing the concept phase of the safety life cycle.
ISO 25119 – 1:2010, §3.21
func­tion­al safety require­ment
require­ment for a safety-​related func­tion of the E/​E/​PES sys­tem
ISO 25119 – 1:2010, §3.22

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G

G-​force — The addi­tion­al load or weight pro­duced in an object dur­ing accel­er­a­tion. When meas­ur­ing the level or amp­litude of a vibra­tion without sound, the unit G is added to asso­ci­ate the force of the vibra­tion to grav­ity. This is sim­il­ar to meas­ur­ing the weight of an object, which is also a func­tion of grav­ity. Ford Motor Company

Gravelly Feel — A grind­ing or growl in a com­pon­ent, sim­il­ar to the feel exper­i­enced when driv­ing on gravel. Ford Motor Company Grind — An abras­ive sound, sim­il­ar to using a grind­ing wheel, or rub­bing sand paper against wood. Ford Motor Company

Ground — The earth. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

See also International elec­tro­tech­nic­al vocab­u­lary (IEV). IEC 60050, [online]. International Electrotechnical Commisssion (IEC). Geneva.

Ground Fault — An unin­ten­tion­al, elec­tric­ally con­duct­ive con­nec­tion between an ungroun­ded con­duct­or of an elec­tric­al cir­cuit and the nor­mally non – current-​carrying con­duct­ors, metal­lic enclos­ures, metal­lic race­ways, metal­lic equip­ment, or earth. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounded (Grounding) — Connected (con­nect­ing) to ground or to a con­duct­ive body that extends the ground con­nec­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounded, Solidly — Connected to ground without insert­ing any res­ist­or or imped­ance device.National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounded Conductor — A sys­tem or cir­cuit con­duct­or that is inten­tion­ally groun­ded. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounding Conductor, Equipment (EGC) — The con­duct­ive path(s) that provides a ground-​fault cur­rent path and con­nects nor­mally non – current-​carrying met­al parts of equip­ment togeth­er and to the sys­tem groun­ded con­duct­or or to the ground­ing elec­trode con­duct­or, or both.

Informational Note No. 1: It is recog­nized that the equip­ment ground­ing con­duct­or also per­forms bond­ing.

Informational Note No. 2: See 250.118 for a list of accept­able equip­ment ground­ing con­duct­ors.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Guard —

  1. Cover or equip (a part of a machine) with a device to pro­tect the oper­at­or. Oxford New American Dictionary
  2. A part of machinery spe­cific­ally used to provide pro­tec­tion by means of a phys­ic­al bar­ri­er. Depending on its con­struc­tion, a guard may be called a cas­ing, screen, door, enclos­ing guard, etc. CSA Z432-​04, §3
  3. A bar­ri­er that pre­vents expos­ure to an iden­ti­fied haz­ard. E3.22 Sometimes referred to as a “bar­ri­er guard.” ANSI B11.19 2003, §3.22
  4. Electrical. Covered, shiel­ded, fenced, enclosed, or oth­er­wise pro­tec­ted by means of suit­able cov­ers, cas­ings, bar­ri­ers, rails, screens, mats, or plat­forms to remove the like­li­hood of approach or con­tact by per­sons or objects to a point of danger. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

[See Adjustable bar­ri­er guard]

[See Barrier (fixed dis­tance) guard]

[See Fixed guard]

[See Interlocked bar­ri­er guard]

[See Movable guard]

Guard lock­ing device

  1. a device that is designed to hold the guard closed and locked until the haz­ard has ceased. CSA Z432-​04, §3
  2. Device inten­ded to lock a guard in the closed pos­i­tion and linked to the con­trol sys­tem so that:
    • the machine can­not oper­ate trntil the guard is closed and locked;
    • the guard remains locked until the risk has passed.

    EN 1088:1996, §3.4

  3. device inten­ded to lock a guard in the closed pos­i­tion and linked to the con­trol sys­tem. ISO 14119

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H

harm — phys­ic­al injury or dam­age to the health of people, or dam­age to prop­erty or the envir­on­ment ISO Guide 51:99

harm­ful event — occur­rence in which a haz­ard­ous situ­ation res­ults in harm ISO Guide 51:99

haz­ard — poten­tial source of harm

NOTE The term haz­ard can be qual­i­fied in order to define its ori­gin or the nature of the expec­ted harm (e.g. elec­tric shock haz­ard, crush­ing haz­ard, cut­ting haz­ard, tox­ic haz­ard, fire haz­ard, drown­ing haz­ard).

ISO Guide 51:99

Hazard groups (ISO)

  • rel­ev­ant haz­ard – Hazard which is iden­ti­fied as being present at or asso­ci­ated with the machine.Note 1 to entry: A rel­ev­ant haz­ard is iden­ti­fied as the res­ult of one step of the pro­cess described in ISO 12100:2010, Clause 5.Note 2 to entry: This term is included as basic ter­min­o­logy for type B- and type C-​standards.Safety of machinery — General prin­ciples for design — Risk assess­ment and risk reduc­tion. ISO 12100, 3.7. ISO International Organization for Standardization. Geneva. 2010
  • sig­ni­fic­ant haz­ard – Hazard which has been iden­ti­fied as rel­ev­ant and which requires spe­cif­ic action by the design­er to elim­in­ate or to reduce the risk accord­ing to the risk assess­ment.Note 1 to entry: This term is included as basic ter­min­o­logy for type B- and type C-​standards.Safety of machinery — General prin­ciples for design — Risk assess­ment and risk reduc­tion. ISO 12100, 3.8. ISO International Organization for Standardization. Geneva. 2010

Hazardous energy 

  1. Any elec­tric­al, mech­an­ic­al, hydraul­ic, pneu­mat­ic, chem­ic­al, nuc­le­ar, thermal, grav­it­a­tion­al, or oth­er energy that can harm per­son­nel. CSA Z460 2005
  2. Any elec­tric­al, mech­an­ic­al, hydraul­ic, pneu­mat­ic, chem­ic­al, nuc­le­ar, thermal, grav­ity or oth­er energy that could cause injury to per­son­nel. ANSI Z244.1 – 2003, 2.10

See also “Energy Source

haz­ard­ous situ­ation

  1. Circumstance in which people, prop­erty or the envir­on­ment are exposed to one or more haz­ards ISO Guide 51:99
  2. A set of cir­cum­stances that may give rise to harm to a per­son. CSA Z432-​04, §3

haz­ard­ous event — event that can cause harm NOTE A haz­ard­ous event can occur over a short peri­od of time or over an exten­ded peri­od of time. ISO 12100:2010 §3.9

haz­ard­ous situ­ation— cir­cum­stance in which a per­son is exposed to at least one haz­ard NOTE The expos­ure can res­ult in harm imme­di­ately or over a peri­od of time. ISO 12100:2010 §3.10

haz­ard zone— danger zone any space with­in and/​or around machinery in which a per­son can be exposed to a haz­ard ISO 12100:2010, §3.12

Hertz (Hz)

  • A unit of meas­ure used to describe noise and vibra­tion con­cerns expressed in cycles per second. [See Cycle and FrequencyFord Motor Company
  • the SI unit of fre­quency, equal to one cycle per second.The New Oxford American Dictionary
  • n. [from the German phys­i­cist Heinrich Hertz.] A unit of fre­quency equal to one cycle per second; it is abbre­vi­ated Hz. It is com­monly used to spe­cify the fre­quency of radio waves, and also the clock fre­quen­cies in digit­al com­puters. For these applic­a­tions, kilo­hertz and mega­hertz are the most com­monly used units, derived from hertz. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
  • n. the unit of fre­quency; one hertz has a peri­od­ic inter­val of one second. Wordnet 3.0

Hiss — Steady, high-​frequency noise. Vacuum leak sound. Ford Motor Company

Hoot — A steady, low-​frequency tone, sounds like blow­ing over a long neck bottle. Ford Motor Company

Howl — A mid-​range fre­quency noise between drum­ming and whine. Also described as a hum. Ford Motor Company

Hum — Mid-​frequency steady sound, like a small fan motor. Also described as a howl. Ford Motor Company

hier­archy of con­trols — rank­ing of meas­ures taken to pre­vent or reduce haz­ard expos­ure accord­ing to effect­ive­ness. Measures are ordered from the most effect­ive meas­ures that elim­in­ate haz­ards to the least effect­ive meas­ures that may achieve only lim­ited risk reduc­tion. Based on University of Southern Queensland (USQ), Human Resources – Glossary. Accessed 24-​Feb-​2011

HMI — See Human-​Machine Interface.

hold-​to-​run con­trol device — a con­trol device that is designed to per­mit move­ment of machinery as long as the con­trol is held in a set pos­i­tion. Once released, this device auto­mat­ic­ally returns the machine to the stop pos­i­tion. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Human-​Machine Interface — This is where people and tech­no­logy meet. This people/​ tech­no­logy inter­cept can be as simple as the grip on a hand tool or as com­plex as the flight deck of a jumbo jet. ISA | Terminology, accessed 3-​Mar-​11.

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I

Industrial Control Panel
An assembly of two or more com­pon­ents con­sist­ing of one of the fol­low­ing:
  1. power cir­cuit com­pon­ents only, such as motor con­trol­lers, over­load relays, fused dis­con­nect switches, and cir­cuit break­ers;
  2. con­trol cir­cuit com­pon­ents only, such as push but­tons, pilot lights, select­or switches, timers, switches, and con­trol relays;
  3. a com­bin­a­tion of power and con­trol cir­cuit com­pon­ents. These com­pon­ents, with asso­ci­ated wir­ing and ter­min­als, are moun­ted on, or con­tained with­in, an enclos­ure or moun­ted on a sub pan­el. The indus­tri­al con­trol pan­el does not include the con­trolled equip­ment.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Industrial robot
an auto­mat­ic­ally con­trolled, repro­gram­mable multi-​purpose manip­u­lat­or pro­gram­mable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in indus­tri­al auto­ma­tion applic­a­tions. CSA Z434-​03, §3 [See Robot]
Industrial robot sys­tem
equip­ment that includes the robot(s) (hard­ware and soft­ware), con­sist­ing of the manip­u­lat­or power sup­ply and con­trol sys­tem, the end-effector(s), and any oth­er asso­ci­ated machinery and equip­ment with­in the safe­guarded space. CSA Z434-​03, §3
Ingoing Pinch Point
An ingo­ing pinch point is the point at which any part of a person’s body, such as fin­gers or hand, is likely to be drawn between a rotat­ing machine mem­ber and anoth­er rotat­ing or fixed mem­ber and be injured.

E2.11 Ingoing Pinch Point. Examples are two gears in mesh, a belt and pul­ley, or a wheel and par­tial guard. ANSI B11.8 – 1983 (R1999), §2.11

Also see “Pinch Point

In Sight From (Within Sight From, Within Sight)
Where this Code spe­cifies that one equip­ment shall be “in sight from,” “with­in sight from,” or “with­in sight of,” and so forth, anoth­er equip­ment, the spe­cified equip­ment is to be vis­ible and not more than 15 m (50 ft) dis­tant from the oth­er. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.
Instruction (for use)
  1. inform­a­tion by the pro­du­cer of a product for the safe and effi­cient use of the product IEC 62079:2001, 3.6
  2. inform­a­tion provided by the sup­pli­er of a product to the user, con­tain­ing all the neces­sary pro­vi­sions to con­vey the actions to be per­formed for the safe and effi­cient use of the product
    Note 1 to entry: Instructions for use of a single product com­prise one or more doc­u­ments .
    [SOURCE: ISO/​IEC Guide 14:2003, defin­i­tion 2.8, mod­i­fied] IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.19

Instruction mater­i­al — any applic­able means for the trans­fer of inform­a­tion con­tain­ing instruc­tions IEC 62079:2001, 3.7

Intended use
exhaust­ive range of func­tions or fore­seen applic­a­tions defined and designed by the sup­pli­er of the product
Note 1 to entry: Functions or applic­a­tions not lis­ted by the sup­pli­er are excluded from the inten­ded use of the product.
Note 2 to entry: Additional or mod­i­fied func­tions or applic­a­tions res­ult­ing from modi­fic­a­tions not sanc­tioned by the sup­pli­er of the product are excluded from the inten­ded use.
IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.20
[see also “reas­on­ably fore­see­able mis­use”]
Intensity
The phys­ic­al qual­ity of sound that relates to the strength of the vibra­tion (meas­ured in decibels). The high­er the sound’s amp­litude, the high­er the intens­ity and vice versa. [See Amplitude.] Ford Motor Company
inter­lock
An inter­lock is a fea­ture that makes the state of two mech­an­isms or func­tions mutu­ally depend­ent. It may be used to pre­vent undesired states in a finite-​state machine and may con­sist of any elec­tric­al, elec­tron­ic, or mech­an­ic­al devices or sys­tems. In most applic­a­tions, an inter­lock is used to help pre­vent a machine from harm­ing its oper­at­or or dam­aging itself by pre­vent­ing one ele­ment from chan­ging state due to the state of anoth­er ele­ment, and vice versa.
En​.wiki​pe​dia​.org. (2017). Interlock (engin­eer­ing). [online] Available at: https://​en​.wiki​pe​dia​.org/​w​i​k​i​/​I​n​t​e​r​l​o​c​k​_​(​e​n​g​i​n​e​e​r​ing) [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].
Interlocked bar­ri­er guard
a fixed or mov­able guard attached and inter­locked in such a man­ner that the machine tool will not cycle or will not con­tin­ue to cycle unless the guard itself or its hinged or mov­able sec­tion encloses the haz­ard­ous area. CSA Z432-​04, §3 [See Guard]
Interlocking device (inter­lock)
  1. Mechanical, elec­tric­al or oth­er type of device, the pur­pose of which is to pre­vent the oper­a­tion of machine ele­ments under spe­cified con­di­tions (gen­er­ally as long as a guard is not closed). EN 1088:96, §3.1
  2. mech­an­ic­al, elec­tric­al or oth­er type of device, the pur­pose of which is to pre­vent the oper­a­tion of haz­ard­ous machine func­tions under spe­cified con­di­tions (gen­er­ally as long as a guard is not closed) ISO 12100:2010, 3.28.1
Interlocking guard
  1. Guard asso­ci­ated with an inter­lock­ing device, so that:
    • the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions ‘covered’ by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed;
    • if the guard is opened while the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions are oper­at­ing, a stop instruc­tion is giv­en;
    • when the guard is closed, the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions ‘covered’ by the guard can oper­ate, but the clos­ure of the guard does not by itself ini­ti­ate their oper­a­tion.
      NOTE. In English ‘stop sig­nal’ and ‘stop com­mand’ are syn­onyms for ‘stop instruc­tion’. In German, ‘Stop-​Signal’ and ‘Stop-​Befehl’ are syn­onyms for ‘Halt-​Befehl’. In French ‘ordre d’arret’ is an all-​encompassing term. EN 1088:96, §3.2
  2. guard asso­ci­ated with an inter­lock­ing device so that, togeth­er with the con­trol sys­tem of the machine, the fol­low­ing func­tions are per­formed:
    • the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions “covered” by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed;
    • if the guard is opened while haz­ard­ous machine func­tions are oper­at­ing, a stop com­mand is giv­en;
    • when the guard is closed, the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions “covered” by the guard can oper­ate. The clos­ure of the guard does not by itself start the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions. ISO 12100:2010, 3.27.4

[See Guard]

Interlocking guard with guard lock­ing
Guard asso­ci­ated with an inter­lock­ing device and a guard lock­ing device so that:
    • the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions ‘covered’ by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed and locked;
    • the guard remains closed and locked until the risk of injury from the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions has passed;
    • when the guard is closed and locked, the haz­ard­ous machine func­tions ‘covered’ by the guard can oper­ate, but the clos­ure and lock­ing of the guard do not by them­selves ini­ti­ate their oper­a­tion.

EN 1088:96, §3.3 [See Guard] [See Guard Locking Device]

inter­lock­ing guard with a start func­tion (con­trol guard)
spe­cial form of an inter­lock­ing guard which, once it has reached its closed pos­i­tion, gives a com­mand to ini­ti­ate the haz­ard­ous machine function(s) without the use of a sep­ar­ate start con­trol. NOTE ISO 12100:2010, 6.3.3.2.5 gives detailed pro­vi­sions regard­ing the con­di­tion of use. ISO 12100:2010, 3.27.6
(elec­tric­ally) instruc­ted per­son
per­son adequately advised or super­vised by elec­tric­ally skilled per­sons to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which elec­tro­heat­ing install­a­tions can cre­ate (oper­at­ing and main­ten­ance staff)

[IEC 60050 – 826:2004, 826 – 18-​02, mod­i­fied], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.7

Isolated (as applied to loc­a­tion)
Not read­ily access­ible to per­sons unless spe­cial means for access are used. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

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J

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K

Knock — A heavy, loud, repe­ti­tious sound, like a knock on the door. Ford Motor Company

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L

like­li­hood — chance of some­thing hap­pen­ing

NOTE 1 In risk man­age­ment ter­min­o­logy, the word “like­li­hood” is used to refer to the chance of some­thing hap­pen­ing, wheth­er defined, meas­ured or determ­ined object­ively or sub­ject­ively, qual­it­at­ively or quant­it­at­ively, and described using gen­er­al terms or math­em­at­ic­ally [such as a prob­ab­il­ity (3.6.1.4) or a fre­quency (3.6.1.5) over a giv­en time peri­od].

NOTE 2 The English term “like­li­hood” does not have a dir­ect equi­val­ent in some lan­guages; instead, the equi­val­ent of the term “prob­ab­il­ity” is often used. However, in English, “prob­ab­il­ity” is often nar­rowly inter­preted as a math­em­at­ic­al term. Therefore, in risk man­age­ment ter­min­o­logy, “like­li­hood” is used with the intent that it should have the same broad inter­pret­a­tion as the term “prob­ab­il­ity” has in many lan­guages oth­er than English.

Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.1. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009

Listed — Equipment, mater­i­als, or ser­vices included in a list pub­lished by an organ­iz­a­tion that is accept­able to the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion and con­cerned with eval­u­ation of products or ser­vices, that main­tains peri­od­ic inspec­tion of pro­duc­tion of lis­ted equip­ment or mater­i­als or peri­od­ic eval­u­ation of ser­vices, and whose list­ing states that either the equip­ment, mater­i­al, or ser­vice meets appro­pri­ate des­ig­nated stand­ards or has been tested and found suit­able for a spe­cified pur­pose.

Informational Note: The means for identi­fy­ing lis­ted equip­ment may vary for each organ­iz­a­tion con­cerned with product eval­u­ation, some of which do not recog­nize equip­ment as lis­ted unless it is also labeled. Use of the sys­tem employed by the list­ing organ­iz­a­tion allows the author­ity hav­ing jur­is­dic­tion to identi­fy a lis­ted product.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Live — elec­tric­ally con­nec­ted to a source of voltage dif­fer­ence, or elec­tric­ally charged so as to have a voltage dif­fer­ent from that of the earth; the term may be used in place of the term “current-​carrying”, where the intent is clear, to avoid repe­ti­tion of the longer term. CSA SPE-1000:99, §2

Live Parts — Energized con­duct­ive com­pon­ents. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Lockout

  1. place­ment of a lock or tag on an energy-​isolating device in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure, thereby indic­at­ing that the energy-​isolating device is not to be oper­ated until remov­al of the lock or tag in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure. CSA Z460, 2005
  2. a mech­an­ic­al means of lock­ing that uses an indi­vidu­ally keyed lock to secure an energy-​isolating device in a pos­i­tion that pre­vents ener­giz­a­tion of a machine, equip­ment, or a pro­cess. CSA Z460
  3. The place­ment of a lock­out device on an energy isol­at­ing device, in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure, ensur­ing that the energy isol­at­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled can­not be oper­ated until the lock­out device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

Lockout device

  1. A pos­it­ive means such as a lock that secures an energy isol­at­ing device in a pos­i­tion that pre­vents the ener­giz­ing of a machine, equip­ment or pro­cess. ANSI Z244.1 – 2003
  2. A device that util­izes a pos­it­ive means such as a lock, either key or com­bin­a­tion type, to hold an energy isol­at­ing device in the safe pos­i­tion and pre­vent the ener­giz­ing of a machine or equip­ment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds. 29 CFR 1910.147

[See “Energy Isolating Device”]

[See “Tagout Device”]

lockout/​tagout — The place­ment of a lock/​tag on the energy isol­at­ing device in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure, indic­at­ing that the energy isol­at­ing device shall not be oper­ated until remov­al of the lock/​tag in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure. (The term “lockout/​tagout” allows the use of a lock­out device, a tagout device, or a com­bin­a­tion of both.) ANSI Z244.1 – 2003, 2.10

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M

machine or machinery — assembly, fit­ted with or inten­ded to be fit­ted with a drive sys­tem con­sist­ing of linked parts or com­pon­ents, at least one of which moves, and which are joined togeth­er for a spe­cif­ic applic­a­tion. NOTE 1: The term “machinery” also cov­ers an assembly of machines which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and con­trolled so that they func­tion as an integ­ral whole. ISO 12100:2010

Manual — doc­u­ment con­tain­ing user inform­a­tion, for example instruc­tions IEC 62079:2001, 3.8

Maintenance — com­bin­a­tion of all tech­nic­al and admin­is­trat­ive actions inten­ded to retain an item or a product in, or restore it to, a use­ful and safe con­di­tion in which it can per­form the required func­tion; this includes super­vising actions, recon­di­tion­ing, repair­ing, adjust­ing, and clean­ing [IEV 191 – 07-​01, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.9

Mechanically Linked – applies to mech­an­ic­ally linked aux­il­i­ary con­tact ele­ments included in con­trol cir­cuit devices where actu­at­ing force is provided intern­ally, such as contactor-​relays. Linkage between the aux­il­i­ary and main con­tacts is not covered.

NOTE 1 A typ­ic­al applic­a­tion of mech­an­ic­ally linked con­tact ele­ments is e.g. self-​monitoring in machine con­trol cir­cuits.

NOTE 2 Mechanically linked con­tact ele­ments have pre­vi­ously been referred to as forced con­tacts, pos­it­ively activ­ated con­tacts, or linked con­tacts, or, in French: “con­tacts for­cés” or in German: “Zwangsgeführte Kontakte”.

NOTE 3 Control cir­cuit devices actu­ated extern­ally (e.g. push-​button or limit-​switches) do not have an actu­at­ing force lim­ited to a max­im­um value (see L.8.4 a) 2)), so they can­not have mech­an­ic­ally linked con­tact ele­ments. For such devices, safety applic­a­tions gen­er­ally use con­tacts with “dir­ect open­ing action” (see Annex K). IEC 60947 – 5-​1, Ed. 3, 2009 §L.1.1

Moan — A con­stant, low-​frequency tone. Also described as a hum. Ford Motor Company

Movable guarda guard gen­er­ally con­nec­ted by mech­an­ic­al means (e.g., hinges or slides) to the machine frame or an adja­cent fixed ele­ment and that can be opened without the use of tools. The open­ing and clos­ing of this type of guard may be powered. CSA Z432-​04, §3

[See Guard]

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N

Neutral Conductor – The con­duct­or con­nec­ted to the neut­ral point of a sys­tem that is inten­ded to carry cur­rent under nor­mal con­di­tions. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Neutral Point – The com­mon point on a wye-​connection in a poly­phase sys­tem or mid­point on a single-​phase, 3-​wire sys­tem, or mid­point of a single-​phase por­tion of a 3-​phase delta sys­tem, or a mid­point of a 3-​wire, direct-​current sys­tem.

Informational Note: At the neut­ral point of the sys­tem, the vec­tori­al sum of the nom­in­al voltages from all oth­er phases with­in the sys­tem that util­ize the neut­ral, with respect to the neut­ral point, is zero poten­tial.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

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P

per­son­al pro­tect­ive equip­ment — spe­cial device or appli­ance designed to be worn or held by an indi­vidu­al for pro­tec­tion against one or more health and safety haz­ards IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.27

Ping — A short-​duration, high-​frequency sound, which has a slight echo. Ford Motor Company

Pitch — The phys­ic­al qual­ity of sound that relates to its fre­quency. Pitch increases as fre­quency increases and vice versa. Ford Motor Company

Pinch Point — Any point oth­er than the trap­ping space at which it is pos­sible for a part of the body to be caught between the mov­ing parts of a machine or between mov­ing and sta­tion­ary parts of a machine or aux­il­i­ary equip­ment, res­ult­ing in injury. E2.19 Pinch Point. The term “pinch point,” as used in this stand­ard, refers only to haz­ards that may exist as a part of the machine or its asso­ci­ated parts. The expres­sion is not used to describe haz­ards caused by the tool­ing at the trap­ping space, since these haz­ards are a dif­fer­ent prob­lem and require dif­fer­ent treat­ment. ANSI B11.8 – 1983 (R1999), §2.19

[See ‘Ingoing Pinch Point’]

pos­it­ive drive – a con­nec­tion between actu­at­or and con­tact ele­ment such that the force applied to the actu­at­or is dir­ectly trans­mit­ted to the con­tact ele­ment IEC 60947 – 5-​1, Ed. 3, 2009 §2.4.4.4
[Also see “Direct Drive”]

Positively Guided – Deprecated. See “Mechanically Linked

Precautionary prin­ciple (law & policy)

  1. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ciple ensures that a sub­stance or activ­ity pos­ing a threat to the envir­on­ment is pre­ven­ted from adversely affect­ing the envir­on­ment, even if there is no con­clus­ive sci­entif­ic proof link­ing that par­tic­u­lar sub­stance or activ­ity to envir­on­ment­al dam­age. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ciple is a guid­ing prin­ciple. Its pur­pose is to encourage-​perhaps even oblige-​decision makers to con­sider the likely harm­ful effects of their activ­it­ies on the envir­on­ment before they pur­sue those activ­it­ies. James Cameron and Juli Abouchar, The Precautionary Principle: A Fundamental Principle of Law and Policy for the Protection of the Global Environment, 14 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 1 (1991), http://​lawdi​git​alcom​mons​.bc​.edu/​i​c​l​r​/​v​o​l​1​4​/​i​s​s​1/2. Get this paper through Google Scholar.
  2. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ciple or pre­cau­tion­ary approach states that if an action or policy has a sus­pec­ted risk of caus­ing harm to the pub­lic or to the envir­on­ment, in the absence of sci­entif­ic con­sensus that the action or policy is harm­ful, the bur­den of proof that it is not harm­ful falls on those tak­ing the action. Precautionary prin­ciple – Wikipedia
  3. In order to pro­tect the envir­on­ment, the pre­cau­tion­ary approach shall be widely applied by States accord­ing to their cap­ab­il­it­ies. Where there are threats of ser­i­ous or irre­vers­ible dam­age, lack of full sci­entif­ic cer­tainty shall not be used as a reas­on for post­pon­ing cost-​effective meas­ures to pre­vent envir­on­ment­al degrad­a­tion. 1992  UNEP Rio Conference. The Precautionary Principle”, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, Paris, 2005.

    Note
    – This ver­sion of the prin­ciple is some­times referred to as the ‘weak pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ciple’. Origin – German, 1930, Vorsorgeprinzip.Note – The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ciple is often cited in OHS work and could be para­phrased, “If a product, pro­cess or ser­vice is sus­pec­ted of caus­ing harm to people in the work­place, in the absence of sci­entif­ic con­sensus that the product, pro­cess or ser­vice is harm­ful, lack of full sci­entif­ic cer­tainty shall not be used as a reas­on for post­pon­ing meas­ures to reduce the risk of harm to people in the work­place. Those respons­ible for intro­du­cing the product, pro­cess or ser­vice into the work­place shall bear the bur­den of proof of safety relat­ing to the safety of the product, pro­cess or ser­vice.”
    Note: This is a ver­sion of the “strong pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ciple.” – Doug Nix

Point of Operation — That point or area where the cut­ting edge(s) of the tool is in con­tact with the work­piece. ANSI B11.8 – 1983 (R1999), §2.20

prob­ab­il­ity — meas­ure of the chance of occur­rence expressed as a num­ber between 0 and 1, where 0 is impossib­il­ity and 1 is abso­lute cer­tainty

NOTE See defin­i­tion 3.6.1.1, Note 2.
Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.4. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009

Protective meas­ure — means used to reduce risk NOTE Protective meas­ures include risk reduc­tion by inher­ently safe design, pro­tect­ive devices, per­son­al pro­tect­ive equip­ment, inform­a­tion for use and install­a­tion, and train­ing. ISO Guide 51:99

See also “Complementary Protective Measures

pro­tect­ive con­duct­or — (iden­ti­fic­a­tion: PE) con­duct­or provided for pur­poses of safety, for example pro­tec­tion against elec­tric shock
NOTE In an elec­tric­al install­a­tion, the PE con­duct­or is nor­mally also con­sidered as a pro­tect­ive earth­ing con­duct­or.

[I EC 60050 – 195: 1998, 195 – 02-​09], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.38

pro­tect­ive earth­ing [pro­tect­ive ground­ing (US)] — earth­ing a point or points in a sys­tem or in an install­a­tion or in equip­ment, for pur­poses of elec­tric­al safety

[IEC 60050 – 195:1998, 195 – 01-​11], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.39

pro­tect­ive equi­po­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem (PEBS) — equi­po­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem provid­ing protective-​equipotential-​bonding

[IEC 60050 – 826:2004, 826 – 13-​31], EN 60519 – 1, 3.40

pro­tect­ive earth­ing con­duct­or [pro­tect­ive ground­ing con­duct­or (US)] — pro­tect­ive con­duct­or provided for pro­tect­ive earth­ing

[IEC 60050 – 195:1998, 195 – 02-​11], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.41

Positive mode actu­ation — If a mov­ing mech­an­ic­al com­pon­ent inev­it­ably moves anoth­er com­pon­ent along with it, either by dir­ect con­tact or via rigid ele­ments, the second com­pon­ent is said to be actu­ated in the pos­it­ive mode (or positively)by the first one. EN 1088:1996, §3.6

Positive open­ing oper­a­tion of a con­tact ele­ment — The achieve­ment of con­tact sep­ar­a­tion as the dir­ect res­ult of a spe­cified move­ment of the switch actu­at­or through non-​resilient mem­bers (e.g. not depend­ent upon springs). (2.2 of chapter 3 ‘Special require­ments for con­trol switches with pos­it­ive open­ing oper­a­tion’ of EN 60947 – 5-​1: 1991). NOTE: For flu­id power, the equi­val­ent concept may be called ‘pos­it­ive mode inter­rup­tion’. EN 1088:1996, §3.7

Pumping Feel — A slow, pulsing move­ment. Ford Motor Company

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R

rated voltage — voltage for which an install­a­tion (or a part there­of) is designed EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.42

Rattle — A ran­dom and moment­ary or short-​duration noise. Ford Motor Company

Reactor — The com­pon­ent, or part, that receives a vibra­tion from an ori­gin­at­or and con­duct­or and reacts to the vibra­tion by mov­ing. Ford Motor Company

Reliability — abil­ity of a machine or its com­pon­ents or equip­ment to per­form a required func­tion under spe­cified con­di­tions and for a giv­en peri­od of time without fail­ing ISO 12100:2010 §3.2

Rustling — Intermittent sound of vary­ing fre­quency, sounds sim­il­ar to shuff­ling through leaves. Ford Motor Company

Reasonably fore­see­able mis­use

  1. use of a product, pro­cess or ser­vice in a way not inten­ded by the sup­pli­er, but which may res­ult from read­ily pre­dict­able human beha­viour [3.14 of ISO/​IEC Guide 51] IEC 62079:2001, 3.1
  2. use of a product in a way not described as inten­ded use in the instruc­tions for use, but which may res­ult from read­ily pre­dict­able human beha­viour
    [SOURCE: ISO/​IEC Guide 51 : 1999, defin­i­tion 3.14, mod­i­fied] IEC 82079 – 1, 2012, §3.31

Residual risk — risk remain­ing after pro­tect­ive meas­ures have been taken. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Risk

  1. com­bin­a­tion of the prob­ab­il­ity of occur­rence of harm and the sever­ity of that harm ISO Guide 51:99
  2. (of harm to an indi­vidu­al) a com­bin­a­tion of the prob­ab­il­ity and the degree of the pos­sible injury or dam­age to health in a haz­ard­ous situ­ation. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Risk ana­lys­is — a com­bin­a­tion of the determ­in­a­tion of the lim­its of the machine, haz­ard iden­ti­fic­a­tion, and risk estim­a­tion. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Risk assess­ment — the over­all pro­cess of risk ana­lys­is and risk eval­u­ation. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Risk estim­a­tion — a judg­ment, on the basis of risk ana­lys­is, of wheth­er adequate risk reduc­tion has been achieved. CSA Z432-​04, §3

Robot — Originally from the Czech, robota, mean­ing drudgery.

  1. A mech­an­ic­al device that some­times resembles a human and is cap­able of per­form­ing a vari­ety of often com­plex human tasks on com­mand or by being pro­grammed in advance.
  2. A machine or device that oper­ates auto­mat­ic­ally or by remote con­trol.
  3. A per­son who works mech­an­ic­ally without ori­gin­al thought, espe­cially one who responds auto­mat­ic­ally to the com­mands of oth­ers.

Read more: http://​www​.answers​.com/​t​o​p​i​c​/​r​o​b​o​t​#​i​x​z​z​1​C​6​9​7​Z​eGf [See Industrial Robot]

Roughness — A medium-​frequency vibra­tion. A slightly high­er fre­quency than a shake. This type of vibra­tion is usu­ally related to driv­etrain com­pon­ents. Ford Motor Company

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S

safety

  1. free­dom from unac­cept­able risk
    NOTE Adapted from ISO/​IEC Guide 2:1996, defin­i­tion 2.5. ISO Guide 51:99
  2. free­dom from unac­cept­able risk of harm
    NOTE In stand­ard­iz­a­tion, the safety of products, pro­cesses and ser­vices is gen­er­ally con­sidered with a view to achiev­ing the optim­um bal­ance of a num­ber of factors, includ­ing non-​technical factors such as human beha­viour, that will elim­in­ate avoid­able risks of harm to per­sons and goods to an accept­able degree. ISO Guide 2:2004, §2.5

safety – related part of a con­trol sys­tem (SRP/​CS) — part of a con­trol sys­tem that responds to safety-​related input sig­nals and gen­er­ates safety-​related out­put sig­nals.

NOTE 1 The com­bined safety-​related parts of a con­trol sys­tem start at the point where the safety-​related input sig­nals are ini­ti­ated (includ­ing e.g. the actu­at­ing cam and the roller of the pos­i­tion switch) and end at the out­put of the power con­trol ele­ments (includ­ing, for example, the main con­tacts of a con­tact­or). NOTE 2 If mon­it­or­ing sys­tems are used for dia­gnostics, they are also con­sidered as SRP/​CS. ISO 13849 – 1:2006, 3.1.1

Service — set of func­tions offered to users by supplier’s organ­iz­a­tion sup­port­ing cli­ents with main­ten­ance [IEV 191 – 01-​04, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.16

sever­itySee Wiktionary.

Shake — A low-​frequency vibra­tion, usu­ally with vis­ible com­pon­ent move­ment. Usually relates to tires, wheels, brake drums or brake discs if it is vehicle speed sens­it­ive, or engine if it is engine speed sens­it­ive. Also referred to as a shimmy or wobble. Ford Motor Company

Shimmy — An abnor­mal vibra­tion or wob­bling, felt as a side-​to-​side motion of the steer­ing wheel in the drive­shaft rota­tion. Also described as waddle. Ford Motor Company

Shudder — A low-​frequency vibra­tion that is felt through the steer­ing wheel or seat dur­ing light brake applic­a­tion. Ford Motor Company

single fault con­di­tion — con­di­tion in which one means for pro­tec­tion against haz­ard is defect­ive
NOTE If a single fault con­di­tion res­ults unavoid­ably in anoth­er single fault con­di­tion, the two fail­ures are con­sidered as one single fault con­di­tion.
[IEC 60050 – 851 :2008, 851 – 11-​20], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.45

Skilled per­son

  1. per­son with rel­ev­ant edu­ca­tion and exper­i­ence to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which oper­a­tion or main­ten­ance of a product can cre­ate [IEV 195 – 04-​01 and 3.52 of IEC 60204 – 1, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.17
  2. indi­vidu­al with rel­ev­ant tech­nic­al edu­ca­tion, train­ing and/​or exper­i­ence enabling him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards occur­ring dur­ing use of a product [SOURCE: IEV 195 – 04-​01 , mod­i­fied and IEC 60204 – 1 :2005, defin­i­tion 3.53, mod­i­fied] IEC82079-​1, 2012, §3.37
  3. (elec­tric­ally) skilled per­son — per­son with rel­ev­ant edu­ca­tion and exper­i­ence to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which elec­tro­heat­ing install­a­tions can cre­ate
    [IEC 60050 – 826:2004, 826 – 18-​01, mod­i­fied], EN 60519 – 1:2011, 3.8

Slap — A res­on­ance from flat sur­faces, such as safety belt webbing or door trim pan­els. Ford Motor Company

Standstill fre­quency
A pro­grammed fixed ref­er­ence value for recog­ni­tion of stand­still. On fre­quency “stand­still,” the enable cir­cuits are switched on and guard lock­ing solen­oids con­trolled by a fail-​safe stand­still mon­it­or are released. Schmersal Canada Ltd.
Standstill mon­it­or
On stand­still of a machine, the mon­it­or gives the enable sig­nal that can be used to release guard lock­ing devices or cre­ate a safe access con­di­tion. See “fail-​safe stand­still mon­it­or.” Adapted from Schmersal Canada Ltd.

State of the art — developed stage of tech­nic­al cap­ab­il­ity at a giv­en time as regards products, pro­cesses and ser­vices, based on the rel­ev­ant con­sol­id­ated find­ings of sci­ence, tech­no­logy and exper­i­ence ISO Guide 2:2004, §1.4 See “Acknowledged Rule of Technology”

Standard – Any norm, con­ven­tion or require­ment Technical Standard, [online]. Wikipedia. Available: http://​en​.wiki​pe​dia​.org/​w​i​k​i​/​T​e​c​h​n​i​c​a​l​_​s​t​a​n​d​ard. Accessed: 13-​Jun-​13.

ISO Standards Taxonomy (Standard Types)

  • type-​A stand­ard – Basic safety stand­ard. Standard giv­ing basic con­cepts, prin­ciples for design and gen­er­al aspects that can be applied to machinery.
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.1. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
  • type-​B stand­ard – Generic safety stand­ard. Standard deal­ing with one safety aspect or one type of safe­guard that can be used across a wide range of machinery.
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.2. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
    • type-​B1 stand­ard – Type-​B stand­ard on par­tic­u­lar safety aspects (for example, safety dis­tances, sur­face tem­per­at­ure, noise).
      Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
      ISO Guide 78, 3.2.1. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
    • type-​B2 stand­ard – Type-​B stand­ard on safe­guards (for example, two-​hand con­trol devices, inter­lock­ing devices, pres­sure sens­it­ive devices, guards).
      Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
      ISO Guide 78, 3.2.2. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
  • type-​C stand­ard – Machine safety stand­ard. Standard deal­ing with detailed safety require­ments for a par­tic­u­lar machine or group of machines.Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.Note 2 to entry: The term “group of machines” means machines hav­ing a sim­il­ar inten­ded use and sim­il­ar haz­ards, haz­ard­ous situ­ations or haz­ard­ous events.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.3. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.

Stopping time (time for haz­ard elim­in­a­tion) — The peri­od between the point at which the inter­lock­ing device ini­ti­ates the stop com­mand and the point at which the risk from haz­ard­ous machine func­tions has passed EN 1088 – 1996, §3.8

Squeak — A high-​pitched tran­si­ent sound, sim­il­ar to rub­bing fin­gers against a clean win­dow. Ford Motor Company

Squeal — A long-​duration, high-​pitched noise. Ford Motor Company

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Tap — A light, rhythmic or inter­mit­tent ham­mer­ing sound, sim­il­ar to tap­ping a pen­cil on a table edge. Ford Motor Company

tagout — The place­ment of a tagout device on an energy isol­at­ing device, in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure, to indic­ate that the energy isol­at­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­ated until the tagout device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

tagout device

  1. A prom­in­ent warn­ing means such as a tag and a means of attach­ment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isol­at­ing device to indic­ate that the energy isol­at­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­ated until the tagout device is removed. ANSI Z244.1 – 2003, 2.20.1
  2. A prom­in­ent warn­ing device, such as a tag and a means of attach­ment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isol­at­ing device in accord­ance with an estab­lished pro­ced­ure, to indic­ate that the energy isol­at­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­ated until the tagout device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

Thump — A dull beat caused by 2 items strik­ing togeth­er. Ford Motor Company

Tick — A rhythmic tap, sim­il­ar to a clock noise. Ford Motor Company

Tip-​In Moan — A light moan­ing noise heard dur­ing light vehicle accel­er­a­tion, usu­ally between 40 – 100 km/​h (25 – 65 mph). Ford Motor Company

tol­er­able risk — risk which is accep­ted in a giv­en con­text based on the cur­rent val­ues of soci­ety ISO Guide 51:99

MS101 Note: In our opin­ion, tol­er­able risk bears a require­ment for con­tinu­ous mon­it­or­ing and improve­ment that is com­pletely missed in this defin­i­tion. Here is an altern­ate defin­i­tion for tol­er­able risk that bet­ter encom­passes this require­ment: tol­er­able risk — risk that may be endured in a giv­en con­text based on cur­rent inform­a­tion and val­ues of soci­ety, sub­ject to con­tinu­ous mon­it­or­ing and reduc­tion.

[see Tolerable] See ‘accept­able risk’.

Transient — A noise or vibra­tion that is moment­ary, a short dur­a­tion. Ford Motor Company

Trapping Space — The space where it would be pos­sible for any part of an individual’s body to be trapped between the cut­ter or its mount­ing and the work­piece or fix­ture, res­ult­ing in injury. ANSI B11.8 – 1983 (R1999), §2.26

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U

unex­pec­ted start-​up or unin­ten­ded start-​up — any start-​up which, because of its unex­pec­ted nature, gen­er­ates a risk to per­sons

NOTE 1: This can be caused by, for example:

    • a start com­mand which is the res­ult of a fail­ure in, or an extern­al influ­ence on, the con­trol sys­tem;
    • a start com­mand gen­er­ated by inop­por­tune action on a start con­trol or oth­er parts of the machine such as a sensor or a power con­trol ele­ment;
    • res­tor­a­tion of the power sup­ply after an inter­rup­tion;
    • external/​internal influ­ences (grav­ity, wind, self-​ignition in intern­al com­bus­tion engines, etc.) on parts of the machine.

NOTE 2: Machine start-​up dur­ing nor­mal sequence of an auto­mat­ic cycle is not unin­ten­ded, but can be con­sidered as being unex­pec­ted from the point of view of the oper­at­or, Prevention of acci­dents in this case involves the use of safe­guard­ing meas­ures (see 6.3). NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 14118:2000, defin­i­tion 3.2. ISO 12100:2010

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Vibration

  • Any motion, shak­ing or trem­bling, that can be felt or seen when an object moves back and forth or up and down. Ford Motor Company
  • The act of vibrat­ing, or the state of being vibrated, or in vibrat­ory motion; quick motion to and fro; oscil­la­tion, as of a pen­du­lum or music­al string. 1913 Webster’s Dictionary
  • (Physics) A lim­ited recip­roc­at­ing motion of a particle of an elast­ic body or medi­um in altern­ately oppos­ite dir­ec­tions from its pos­i­tion of equi­lib­ri­um, when that equi­lib­ri­um has been dis­turbed, as when a stretched cord or oth­er body pro­duces music­al notes, or particles of air trans­mit sounds to the ear. The path of the particle may be in a straight line, in a cir­cu­lar arc, or in any curve whatever.Note: Vibration and oscil­la­tion are both used, in mech­an­ics, of the swinging, or rising and fall­ing, motion of a sus­pen­ded or bal­anced body; the lat­ter term more appro­pri­ately, as sig­ni­fy­ing such motion pro­duced by grav­ity, and of any degree of slow­ness, while the former applies espe­cially to the quick, short motion to and fro which res­ults from elasti­city, or the action of molecu­lar forces among the particles of a body when dis­turbed from their pos­i­tion of rest, as in a spring. 1913 Webster’s Dictionary
  • (n) The act of vibrat­ing Wordnet 3.0
  • (phys­ics) a reg­u­lar peri­od­ic vari­ation in value about a mean. Wordnet 3.0

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W

Whine — A con­stant, high-​pitched noise. Also described as a screech. Ford Motor Company

Whistle — High-​pitched noise with a very nar­row fre­quency band. Examples of whistle noises are a tur­bochar­ger or air flow around an antenna. Ford Motor Company

Wind Noise — Any noise caused by air move­ment in, out or around the vehicle. Ford Motor Company

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X

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Y

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Z

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Acknowledgements: ANSI, CSA, IEC, ISO, LinkedIn​.com as cited.
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