MS101 Glossary

 This glos­sary is a work in progress, assem­bled from a vari­ety of sources, most­ly stan­dards, but a few web­sites and online dic­tio­nar­ies as well. We have pro­vid­ed the orig­i­nal sources wher­ev­er pos­si­ble. If you feel the source is incor­rect, of if a term is incor­rect­ly ref­er­enced, please let us know!

We have includ­ed some def­i­n­i­tions just because we thought they were inter­est­ing — many of those from the Ford Motor Com­pa­ny fall into that group but could also be use­ful for describ­ing machin­ery and haz­ards.

Want to add some­thing that’s miss­ing? Send it to us, includ­ing the full source cita­tion, and we will glad­ly add it!

Additional Official Sources

There are three addi­tion­al sources of def­i­n­i­tions, stan­dard graph­ics and oth­er infor­ma­tion that you may not know about:

  1. ISO Online Brows­ing Plat­form — The Online Brows­ing Plat­form is a pub­licly avail­able ser­vice from ISO that per­mits users to search ISO Stan­dards, Col­lec­tions, Graph­i­cal Sym­bols, Terms and Def­i­n­i­tions, and Coun­try Codes at no charge.
  2. IEC Elec­tro­pe­dia — Also known as the Inter­na­tion­al Elec­trotech­ni­cal Vocab­u­lary, or IEC 60050, this online ser­vice gives users direct access to the most cur­rent terms and def­i­n­i­tions in the elec­trotech­ni­cal sec­tor.
  3. IEC Glos­sary — A com­pi­la­tion of elec­trotech­ni­cal ter­mi­nol­o­gy in Eng­lish and French extract­ed from the “Terms and Def­i­n­i­tions” clause of IEC pub­li­ca­tions (those issued since 2002). In some cas­es, terms and def­i­n­i­tions have also been col­lect­ed from ear­li­er pub­li­ca­tions (e.g. from TC 37, 77, 86 and CISPR). The data­base con­tains some 65 000 items drawn from 3 000 pub­li­ca­tions, with new ones being added on a con­tin­u­ous basis.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

accept­able risk
risk that may be read­i­ly allowed by affect­ed per­sons, based on an based on an informed deci­sion Note 1: Accept­ed risks may be sub­ject to peri­od­ic mon­i­tor­ing and reduc­tion, par­tic­u­lar­ly when the val­ues of soci­ety change, or when new infor­ma­tion regard­ing the risk becomes avail­able, thus mak­ing pre­vi­ous­ly accept­able risks unac­cept­able. Note 2: Where resid­ual risk is thought to be extreme­ly low, risks are often accept­ed based on a pre­sump­tion of safe­ty rather than an informed deci­sion about a par­tic­u­lar risk. MS101 Note: This def­i­n­i­tion is a pro­posed def­i­n­i­tion that has not been offi­cial­ly pub­lished, thus the lack of cita­tion. :-)See ‘tol­er­a­ble risk’
Acces­si­ble
  1. (as applied to equip­ment) — Admit­ting close approach; not guard­ed by locked doors, ele­va­tion, or oth­er effec­tive means.
  2. (as applied to wiring meth­ods) — Capa­ble of being removed or exposed with­out dam­ag­ing the build­ing struc­ture or fin­ish or not per­ma­nent­ly closed in by the struc­ture or fin­ish of the build­ing.
  3. Read­i­ly (Read­i­ly Acces­si­ble) — Capa­ble of being reached quick­ly for oper­a­tion, renew­al, or inspec­tions with­out requir­ing those to whom ready access is req­ui­site to actions such as to use tools, to climb over or remove obsta­cles, or to resort to portable lad­ders, and so forth.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014

Access time (time for access to a dan­ger zone)
The time tak­en to access the haz­ardous machine parts after ini­ti­a­tion of the stop com­mand by the inter­lock­ing device, as cal­cu­lat­ed on the basis of an approach speed the val­ue of which may be cho­sen, for each par­tic­u­lar case, tak­ing into account the para­me­ters giv­en in prEN 999 ‘Safe­ty of machin­ery — The posi­tion­ing of pro­tec­tive equip­ment in respect of approach speeds of parts of the human body’. EN 1088, §3.9
acknowl­edged rule of tech­nol­o­gy
tech­ni­cal pro­vi­sion acknowl­edged by a major­i­ty of rep­re­sen­ta­tive experts as reflect­ing the state of the art

NOTE A nor­ma­tive doc­u­ment on a tech­ni­cal sub­ject, if pre­pared with the coop­er­a­tion of con­cerned inter­ests by con­sul­ta­tion and con­sen­sus pro­ce­dures, is pre­sumed to con­sti­tute an acknowl­edged rule of tech­nol­o­gy at the time of its approval.

ISO Guide 2:2004, §1.5

See ‘State of the Art’

Actu­a­tor
sep­a­rate part of an inter­lock­ing device which trans­mits the state of the guard (closed or not closed) to the actu­at­ing sys­tem NOTE 1 A guard mount­ed cam, a key, a shaped tongue, a reflec­tor, a mag­net, an RFID tag are exam­ples of actu­a­tors. NOTE 2 See also Annex A to E. NOTE 3 See exam­ples of actu­a­tors in Fig­ure 2. ISO 14119, §3.12 [See also Cod­ed Actu­a­tor]
Actu­at­ing Sys­tem
part of the inter­lock­ing device which trans­mits the posi­tion of the actu­a­tor and changes the state of the out­put sys­tem NOTE 1 A roller plunger, a cam link­age sys­tem, an opti­cal, induc­tive or capac­i­tive sen­sor are exam­ples of an actu­at­ing sys­tem. NOTE 2 See exam­ples of actu­at­ing sys­tems in Fig­ure 2. ISO 14119, §3.14
Ade­quate risk reduc­tion
the achieve­ment of a risk lev­el unlike­ly to give rise to a sit­u­a­tion that could result in harm to any per­son. See ‘accept­able risk’.
Adjustable bar­ri­er guard
a fixed guard that is adjustable as a whole or that incor­po­rates adjustable parts. The adjust­ment to the guard remains fixed dur­ing oper­a­tion. CSA Z432-04, §3 [See Guard]
Alive
See Live
ALARP
As Low As Reason­ably Prac­ti­ca­ble”. The ALARP Prin­ci­ple comes from UK OHS law:

The main tests that are applied in reg­u­lat­ing indus­tri­al risks are very sim­i­lar to those we apply in day to day life. They involve deter­min­ing:

  1. whether a giv­en risk is so great or the out­come so unac­cept­able that it must be refused alto­geth­er; or
  2. whether the risk is, or has been made, so small that no fur­ther pre­cau­tion is nec­es­sary; or
  3. if a risk falls between these two states, that it has been reduced to the low­est lev­el prac­ti­ca­ble, bear­ing in mind the ben­e­fits flow­ing from its accep­tance and tak­ing into account the costs of any fur­ther reduc­tion. The injunc­tion laid down in safe­ty law is that any risk must be reduced so far as rea­son­ably prac­ti­ca­ble, or to a lev­el which is ‘as low as rea­son­ably prac­ti­ca­ble’ (ALARP prin­ci­ple).”

The Tol­er­a­bil­i­ty of Risk from Nuclear Pow­er Sta­tions, UK Health and Safe­ty Exec­u­tive, HMSO OPSI, Lon­don, 1992

Ampli­tude
The quan­ti­ty or amount of ener­gy pro­duced by a vibrat­ing com­po­nent (G-force). An extreme vibra­tion has a high ampli­tude. A mild vibra­tion has a low ampli­tude. [See Inten­si­ty] Ford Motor Com­pa­ny
anti­va­lence
Switch­ing func­tion, for which a sen­sor pro­duces two out­put sig­nals (and there­fore two out­put func­tions): “nor­mal­ly open” and “nor­mal­ly closed” (NC — nor­mal­ly closed con­tact). When an object is detect­ed, both out­puts are switched to their oppo­site state. [Ed. note: trans­lat­ed from French and para­phrased for clar­i­ty.]  Bal­luff Com­pa­ny
At height
access posi­tions locat­ed 2.5 m above the sur­round­ing sur­face or land­ing. CSA Z432-04, §3
Approved
Accept­able to the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014
Author­i­ty Hav­ing Juris­dic­tion (AHJ)
An orga­ni­za­tion, office, or indi­vid­ual respon­si­ble for enforc­ing the require­ments of a code or stan­dard, or for approv­ing equip­ment, mate­ri­als, an instal­la­tion, or a pro­ce­dure.

Infor­ma­tion­al Note: The phrase “author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion,” or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA doc­u­ments in a broad man­ner, since juris­dic­tions and approval agen­cies vary, as do their respon­si­bil­i­ties. Where pub­lic safe­ty is pri­ma­ry, the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion may be a fed­er­al, state, local, or oth­er region­al depart­ment or indi­vid­ual such as a fire chief; fire mar­shal; chief of a fire pre­ven­tion bureau, labor depart­ment, or health depart­ment; build­ing offi­cial; elec­tri­cal inspec­tor; or oth­ers hav­ing statu­to­ry author­i­ty. For insur­ance pur­pos­es, an insur­ance inspec­tion depart­ment, rat­ing bureau, or oth­er insur­ance com­pa­ny rep­re­sen­ta­tive may be the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion. In many cir­cum­stances, the prop­er­ty own­er or his or her des­ig­nat­ed agent assumes the role of the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion; at gov­ern­ment instal­la­tions, the com­mand­ing offi­cer or depart­men­tal offi­cial may be the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014

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B

Bar­ri­er (fixed dis­tance) guard — a fixed guard that does not com­plete­ly enclose the haz­ard but that reduces access by virtue of its phys­i­cal dimen­sions and its dis­tance from the haz­ard. CSA Z432-04, §3 [See Guard]

Boom — Low fre­quen­cy or low pitched noise often accom­pa­nied by a vibra­tion. [Also refer to Drum­ming.] Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Buf­fet / Buf­fet­ing — Strong noise fluc­tu­a­tions caused by gust­ing winds. An exam­ple would be wind gusts against the side glass. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Buzz — A low-pitched sound like that from a bee. Often a metal­lic or hard plas­tic hum­ming sound. Also describes a high-fre­quen­cy vibra­tion. Vibra­tion feels sim­i­lar to an elec­tric razor. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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C

cable
assem­bly of one or more con­duc­tors and/or opti­cal fibres, with a pro­tec­tive cov­er­ing and pos­si­bly fill­ing, insu­lat­ing and pro­tec­tive mate­r­i­al [IEV 151–12-38] [IEC 62491:2008, 3.2]
CE Mark­ing
CE Mark­ing is the sym­bol as shown on the top of this page. The let­ters “CE” are the abbre­vi­a­tion of French phrase “Con­for­mité Européene” which lit­er­al­ly means “Euro­pean Con­for­mi­ty”.
The term ini­tial­ly used was “EC Mark” and it was offi­cial­ly replaced by “CE Mark­ing” in the Direc­tive 93/68/EEC in 1993. “CE Mark­ing” is now used in all EU offi­cial doc­u­ments.
  1. CE Mark­ing on a prod­uct is a manufacturer’s dec­la­ra­tion that the prod­uct com­plies with the essen­tial require­ments of the rel­e­vant Euro­pean health, safe­ty and envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion leg­is­la­tion, in prac­tice by many of the so-called Prod­uct Direc­tives.
  2. CE Mark­ing on a prod­uct indi­cates to gov­ern­men­tal offi­cials that the prod­uct may be legal­ly placed on the mar­ket in their coun­try.
  3. CE Mark­ing on a prod­uct ensures the free move­ment of the prod­uct with­in the EFTA & Euro­pean Union (EU) sin­gle mar­ket (includ­ing total­ly 30 EEA* coun­tries), and
  4. CE Mark­ing on a prod­uct per­mits the with­draw­al of the non-con­form­ing prod­ucts by EEA cus­toms and enforcement/vigilance author­i­ties.
Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion
  1. Prod­uct cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is the process of eval­u­at­ing a (usu­al­ly elec­tri­cal) prod­uct against the require­ments of a Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion Stan­dard, using stan­dard­ized safe­ty test meth­ods in an accred­it­ed Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion Lab­o­ra­to­ry. This process is typ­i­cal­ly called a “cer­ti­fi­ca­tion scheme” in the prod­uct cer­ti­fi­ca­tion indus­try. At the end of the process, prod­ucts that suc­cess­ful­ly meet the require­ments are per­mit­ted to be marked with the Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion Body’s trade­mark under license. Ongo­ing fac­to­ry audits are required to ensure that the prod­ucts pro­duced do not vary from the sam­ples sub­mit­ted for test­ing. Prod­uct Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is typ­i­cal­ly used for series pro­duc­tion of 200 or more units annu­al­ly. See Prod­uct Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion. Wikipedia, [online].For pro­duc­tion vol­umes below 200 units per year, Field Eval­u­a­tion is nor­mal­ly the most appro­pri­ate approach to com­pli­ance.
  2. Third-par­ty attes­ta­tion relat­ed to prod­ucts, process­es, sys­tems or per­sons
    Note 1 to entry: Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion of a man­age­ment sys­tem is some­times also called reg­is­tra­tion.
    Note 2 to entry: Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is applic­a­ble to all objects of con­for­mi­ty assess­ment except for con­for­mi­ty assess­ment bod­ies them­selves, to which accred­i­ta­tion is applic­a­ble.

ISO/IEC 17000:2004, 5.5

IEC Elec­tro­pe­dia

Chat­ter — A pro­nounced series of rapid­ly repeat­ing rat­tling or click­ing sounds. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Chirp — A short-dura­tion, high-pitched noise asso­ci­at­ed with a slip­ping dri­ve belt.Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Chuck­le— A rep­e­ti­tious, low-pitched sound. A loud chuck­le is usu­al­ly described as a knock.Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Click — A sharp, brief, non-res­o­nant sound, sim­i­lar to actu­at­ing a ball point pen. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Clonk — A hydraulic knock­ing sound. Sound occurs with air pock­ets in a hydraulic sys­tem. Also described as ham­mer­ing. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Clunk — A heavy or dull, short-dura­tion, low-fre­quen­cy sound. Occurs most­ly on a vehi­cle that is accel­er­at­ing or decel­er­at­ing abrupt­ly. Also described as a thunk. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Code of prac­tice — doc­u­ment that rec­om­mends prac­tices or pro­ce­dures for the design, man­u­fac­ture, instal­la­tion, main­te­nance or uti­liza­tion of equip­ment, struc­tures or prod­ucts

NOTE A code of prac­tice may be a stan­dard, a part of a stan­dard or inde­pen­dent of a stan­dard. ISO Guide 2:2003, §3.5

Cod­ed Actu­a­tor— actu­a­tor which is spe­cial­ly designed (e. g. by shape) to actu­ate a cer­tain posi­tion switch:

  1. low lev­el cod­ed actu­a­tor — cod­ed actu­a­tor for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be 1 to 9;
  2. medi­um lev­el cod­ed actu­a­tor — cod­ed actu­a­tor for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be 10 to = 1 000;
  3. high lev­el cod­ed actu­a­tor — cod­ed actu­a­tor for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be > 1 000.

ISO 14119, §3.13 [See also Actu­a­tor]

Com­mis­sion­ing 

  1. pro­ce­dures pri­or, or relat­ed, to hand­ing over a prod­uct ready for putting into ser­vice, includ­ing final accep­tance test­ing; hand­ing over of draw­ings, instruc­tions for oper­a­tion, main­te­nance and repair; if nec­es­sary, instruct­ing per­son­nel IEC 62079:2001, 3.2
  2. pro­ce­dure by which a sys­tem is for­mal­ly accept­ed by the pur­chas­er. ISO 4414:2010, 3.1
  3. pro­ce­dures pri­or, or relat­ed , to the hand­ing over of a prod­uct ready for putting into ser­vice, includ­ing final accep­tance test­ing, the hand­ing over of all doc­u­men­ta­tion rel­e­vant to the use of the prod­uct and, if nec­es­sary, instruct­ing per­son­nel IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.3

Com­mon cause fail­ures — fail­ures of dif­fer­ent items, result­ing from a sin­gle event, where these fail­ures are not con­se­quences of each oth­er. CSA Z432-04, §3

Com­mon mode fail­ures — fail­ures of items char­ac­ter­ized by the same fault mode. CSA Z432-04, §3

Com­mon sense — Can be expressed as a func­tion of four ele­ments:

com­mon sense = knowl­edge + expe­ri­ence + atten­tion + expo­sure

Where any ele­ment is miss­ing or insuf­fi­cient, there can be no com­mon sense.

 Wynand Ser­fontaine and oth­ers on the LinkedIN Safe­ty Engi­neer­ing Net­work

MS101 NOTE: It is impor­tant to rec­og­nize that the pre­ced­ing def­i­n­i­tion will result in a dif­fer­ent out­come for every indi­vid­ual to whom it is applied, since every indi­vid­ual has dif­fer­ent knowl­edge, expe­ri­ence, atten­tion (focus) and expo­sure to the spe­cif­ic haz­ard being con­sid­ered. This illus­trates the prob­lem with try­ing to use the ‘com­mon-sense’ approach in risk con­trol. As Mark Twain once said, “The prob­lem with com­mon sense is that it’s not too com­mon.”

Alter­nate Def­i­n­i­tion — Com­mon sense is that unique body of knowl­edge and expe­ri­ence relat­ed to haz­ards com­mon­ly expe­ri­enced in day-to-day life by an indi­vid­ual. D. Nix, 2005

Com­ple­men­tary pro­tec­tive mea­sures— Pro­tec­tive mea­sures that are nei­ther inher­ent­ly safe design mea­sures, nor safe­guard­ing (imple­men­ta­tion of guards and/or pro­tec­tive devices), nor infor­ma­tion for use may have to be imple­ment­ed as required by the intend­ed use and the rea­son­ably fore­see­able mis­use of the machine. Such mea­sures shall include, but not be lim­it­ed to,

  1. emer­gency stop;
  2. means of res­cue of trapped per­sons; and
  3. means of ener­gy iso­la­tion and dis­si­pa­tion.

CSA Z432-04 (R2009), §6.2.3.5.3

See also “Pro­tec­tive Mea­sure

See also ISO 12100:2010, §6.3.5

Com­pli­ance – “Com­pli­ance” is used to describe the action of doing what is required (e. g. an orga­ni­za­tion “com­plies” by mak­ing some­thing or by ful­fill­ing a reg­u­la­to­ry require­ment). ISO/IEC 17000:2004, §3 [See Con­for­mi­ty]

com­po­nent – prod­uct used as a con­stituent in an assem­bled prod­uct, sys­tem or plant [SOURCE: IEC 81346–1 :2009, def­i­n­i­tion 3.7] IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.4

Con­duc­tor

  1. Mechan­i­cal. The com­po­nents that car­ry (trans­mit) a vibra­tion fre­quen­cy from the orig­i­na­tor to the reac­tor. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny
  2. Bare. A con­duc­tor hav­ing no cov­er­ing or elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion what­so­ev­er. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014
  3. Cov­ered. A con­duc­tor encased with­in mate­r­i­al of com­po­si­tion or thick­ness that is not rec­og­nized by this Code as elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014
  4. Insu­lat­ed. A con­duc­tor encased with­in mate­r­i­al of com­po­si­tion and thick­ness that is rec­og­nized by this Code as elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014
  5. con­duc­tor (of a cable) — part of a cable which has the spe­cif­ic func­tion of car­ry­ing cur­rent
    [IEV 461–01-01] [IEC 62491:2008, 3.1] See also core.

con­for­mi­ty — ful­fill­ment of spec­i­fied require­ments
Note 1 to entry: The term “con­for­mance” is syn­ony­mous but dep­re­cat­ed.
IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.5

con­se­quence

  1. out­come of an event (3.5.1.3) affect­ing objec­tives
    NOTE 1 An event can lead to a range of con­se­quences.
    NOTE 2 A con­se­quence can be cer­tain or uncer­tain and can have pos­i­tive or neg­a­tive effects on objec­tives.
    NOTE 3 Con­se­quences can be expressed qual­i­ta­tive­ly or quan­ti­ta­tive­ly.
    NOTE 4 Ini­tial con­se­quences can esca­late through knock-on effects.
    Risk man­age­ment — Vocab­u­lary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.3. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion. 2009.
  2. out­come of an occur­rence of a par­tic­u­lar set of cir­cum­stances
    Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one con­se­quence from one event. IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.6

[See also “sever­i­ty”]

Con­for­mi­ty – “Con­for­mi­ty” means ful­fill­ment of a require­ment. Spec­i­fied require­ments may be stat­ed in nor­ma­tive doc­u­ments as reg­u­la­tions, stan­dards and tech­ni­cal spec­i­fi­ca­tions. ISO/IEC 17000:2004, §3

Con­trol Cir­cuit

  1. The cir­cuit of a con­trol appa­ra­tus or sys­tem that car­ries the elec­tric sig­nals direct­ing the per­for­mance of the con­troller but does not car­ry the main pow­er cur­rent. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014
  2. (of a machine) cir­cuit used for the con­trol, includ­ing mon­i­tor­ing, of a machine and the elec­tri­cal equip­ment. Safe­ty of machinery—Electrical equip­ment of machines—Part 1: Gen­er­al Require­ments, §3.8. IEC 60204–1. Inter­na­tion­al Elec­trotech­ni­cal Com­mis­sion (IEC). Gene­va. 2006.

Con­trol Guard – See “Inter­lock­ing guard with a start func­tion

core — assem­bly com­pris­ing a con­duc­tor with its own insu­la­tion (and screens if any)
[IEV 461–04-04] [IEC 62491:2008, 3.3] See also: con­duc­tor

Cracks — A mid-fre­quen­cy sound, relat­ed to squeak. Sound varies with tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Creak — A metal­lic squeak. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Crit­i­cal safe­ty func­tion — a safe­ty func­tion of a machine whose fail­ure can result in an imme­di­ate increase of risk. CSA Z432-04, §3

Cur­rent-car­ry­ing — See “Live

Cycle — The process of a vibrat­ing com­po­nent going through a com­plete range of motion and return­ing to the start­ing point. [See Fre­quen­cy]  Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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D

Dan­ger zone — the zone around the machine (front, back, sides, top, and bot­tom) where a haz­ard is cre­at­ed by the motion of the machine com­po­nents. CSA Z432-04, §3 See ‘Haz­ard Zone’.

Dead­man or Dead Man — Obso­lete term used to refer to an Enabling Device. Use of the term ‘dead­man’ should be avoid­ed. See ‘Enabling Device

Deci­bel (dB)

  • A unit of mea­sure­ment, refer­ring to sound pres­sure lev­el, abbre­vi­at­ed dB. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny
  • a unit used to mea­sure the inten­si­ty of a sound or the pow­er lev­el of an elec­tri­cal sig­nal by com­par­ing it with a giv­en lev­el on a log­a­rith­mic scale. New Oxford Amer­i­can Dic­tio­nary
  • a log­a­rith­mic unit of sound inten­si­ty; 10 times the log­a­rithm of the ratio of the sound inten­si­ty to some ref­er­ence inten­si­ty. Word­net 3.0 2006

defeat – action that makes inter­lock­ing devices inop­er­a­tive or bypass­es them with the result that a machine is used in a man­ner not intend­ed by the design­er or with­out the nec­es­sary safe­ty mea­sures. ISO 14119

defeat in a rea­son­ably fore­see­able man­ner– defeat of an inter­lock­ing device either man­u­al­ly or by using read­i­ly avail­able objects.

NOTE 1 This def­i­n­i­tion includes the removal of switch­es or actu­a­tors using tools that are need­ed for the intend­ed use of the machine or that are read­i­ly avail­able (screw dri­vers, wrench­es, hexa­gon keys, pli­ers).

NOTE 2 Read­i­ly avail­able objects for sub­sti­tute actu­a­tion can be:

  • screws, nee­dles, sheet-met­al pieces;
  • objects in dai­ly use such as keys, coins, adhe­sive tape, string and wire;
  • spare keys for the trapped-key inter­lock­ing devices;
  • spare actu­a­tors.

ISO 14119

direct con­tact — elec­tric con­tact of per­sons or ani­mals with live parts

[IEC 60050–195: 1998, 195–06-03] EN 60519–1:2006, 3.1

direct dri­ve — a con­nec­tion between actu­a­tor and con­tact ele­ment that excludes any pre-trav­el of the actu­a­tor IEC 60947–5-1, Ed. 3, 2009 §2.4.4.3

[Also see “Pos­i­tive Dri­ve”]

direct open­ing action (of a con­tact ele­ment) — achieve­ment of con­tact sep­a­ra­tion as the direct result of a spec­i­fied move­ment of the switch actu­a­tor through non-resilient mem­bers (for exam­ple not depen­dent upon springs) IEC 60947–5-1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.2
[See also “Direct Dri­ve” “Force Guid­ed”, “Mechan­i­cal­ly Linked”, “Pos­i­tive­ly Guid­ed”, “Pos­i­tive Dri­ve”]

direct open­ing trav­el — trav­el from the begin­ning of actu­a­tion of the actu­a­tor and the posi­tion when the direct open­ing action of the open­ing con­tacts is com­plet­ed  IEC 60947–5-1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.3

direct open­ing force (or moment) — actu­a­tion force, or actu­at­ing moment for a rotary con­trol switch, applied to the actu­a­tor for the direct open­ing action IEC 60947–5-1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.4

Dis­con­nect­ing Means — A device, or group of devices, or oth­er means by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nect­ed from their source of sup­ply. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Drone — A low-fre­quen­cy, steady sound, like a freez­er com­pres­sor. Also described as a moan. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Drum­ming — A cycling, low-fre­quen­cy, rhyth­mic noise often accom­pa­nied by a sen­sa­tion of pres­sure on the ear drums. Also described as a low rum­ble, boom or rolling thun­der. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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E

E/E/PES — elec­tri­cal and/or elec­tron­ic and/or pro­gram­ma­ble elec­tron­ic sys­tem
ISO 25119–1:2010

emer­gency con­trol — con­trol func­tion that brings a sys­tem to a safe con­di­tion ISO 4414:2010, 3.2

Emer­gency sit­u­a­tion — an imme­di­ate­ly haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion that needs to be end­ed or avert­ed quick­ly in order to pre­vent injury or dam­age. CSA Z432-04, §3

Emer­gency stop 

  1. A func­tion that is intend­ed to avert harm or to reduce exist­ing haz­ards to per­sons, machin­ery, or work in progress. CSA Z432-04, §3.
  2. The oper­a­tion of a cir­cuit that over­rides all oth­er robot con­trols, removes dri­ve pow­er, caus­es all mov­ing parts to stop, and removes pow­er from oth­er haz­ardous func­tions present in the safe­guard­ed space but does not cause addi­tion­al haz­ards. ANSI RIA 15.06–99, §3.11
  3. The oper­a­tion of a cir­cuit that over­rides all oth­er robot con­trols, removes dri­ve pow­er, caus­es all mov­ing parts to stop, and removes pow­er from oth­er haz­ardous func­tions present in the safe­guard­ed space but does not cause addi­tion­al haz­ards. CSA Z434-03, §3.

Emer­gency stop but­ton — A red mush­room-head­ed but­ton that, when acti­vat­ed, will imme­di­ate­ly start the emer­gency stop sequence. CSA Z432-04, §3.

Emer­gency stop device — Man­u­al­ly actu­at­ed con­trol device used to ini­ti­ate an emer­gency stop func­tion. ISO 13850 2006, §3.2

Emer­gency Switch­ing Off — An emer­gency oper­a­tion intend­ed to switch off the sup­ply of the elec­tri­cal ener­gy to all or part of an instal­la­tion. NFPA 79–07, §3.3.37.

Emer­gency switch­ing off device — Man­u­al­ly actu­at­ed con­trol device used to switch off the sup­ply of elec­tri­cal ener­gy to all or a part of an instal­la­tion where a risk of elec­tric shock or anoth­er risk of elec­tri­cal ori­gin is involved. IEC 60204–1, 2005, §3.18

Enabling device

  1. a device that is designed to ini­ti­ate a machine action or allow the flow of ener­gy to a machine. CSA Z432-04, §3
  2. addi­tion­al man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed device used in con­junc­tion with a start con­trol and which, when con­tin­u­ous­ly actu­at­ed, allows a machine to func­tion ISO 12100:2010 §3.28.2
  3. A man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed device which when con­tin­u­ous­ly acti­vat­ed, per­mits motion. ANSI RIA R15.06–1999 §3.12

See ‘dead­man con­trol’.

Ener­gy-iso­lat­ing device

  1. a mechan­i­cal device that phys­i­cal­ly pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of ener­gy, includ­ing but not lim­it­ed to the fol­low­ing: a man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed elec­tri­cal cir­cuit break­er; a dis­con­nect switch; a man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed switch by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nect­ed from all unground­ed sup­ply con­duc­tors; a line valve; a block; and oth­er devices used to block or iso­late ener­gy (push-but­ton selec­tor switch­es and oth­er con­trol-type devices are not ener­gy-iso­lat­ing devices). CSA Z460 2005
  2. A mechan­i­cal device that phys­i­cal­ly pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of ener­gy, includ­ing but not lim­it­ed to the fol­low­ing: a man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed elec­tri­cal cir­cuit break­er, a dis­con­nect switch, a man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed switch by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nect­ed from all unground­ed sup­ply con­duc­tors and, in addi­tion, no pole can be oper­at­ed inde­pen­dent­ly; a line valve; a block; and any sim­i­lar device used to block or iso­late ener­gy. ANSI Z244.1–2003
  3. A device that phys­i­cal­ly pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of ener­gy, includ­ing but not lim­it­ed to the fol­low­ing: A man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed elec­tri­cal cir­cuit break­er; a dis­con­nect switch; a man­u­al­ly oper­at­ed switch by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nect­ed from all unground­ed sup­ply con­duc­tors, and, in addi­tion, no pole can be oper­at­ed inde­pen­dent­ly; a line valve; a block; and any sim­i­lar device used to block or iso­late ener­gy. Push but­tons, selec­tor switch­es and oth­er con­trol cir­cuit type devices are not ener­gy iso­lat­ing devices. 29 CFR 1901.147

Ener­gy source — Any source of elec­tri­cal, mechan­i­cal, hydraulic, pneu­mat­ic, chem­i­cal, ther­mal, or oth­er ener­gy. 29 CFR 1910.147

See also “Haz­ardous Ener­gy”

equipo­ten­tial bond­ing — pro­vi­sion of elec­tric con­nec­tions between con­duc­tive parts, intend­ed to put them at a sub­stan­tial­ly equal poten­tial
[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–01-10, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.14

equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem (EBS)interconnection of con­duc­tive parts pro­vid­ing equipo­ten­tial bond­ing between those parts
NOTE If an equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem is earth­ed, it forms part of an earth­ing arrange­ment.
[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–02-22], en60519-1:2011. 3.15

exposed

  1. (con­duc­tive part) con­duc­tive part of elec­tri­cal equip­ment, which can be touched and which is not live in nor­mal oper­a­tion, but which can become live under fault con­di­tions
    [IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–12-10, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.16
  2. (as applied to live parts) Capa­ble of being inad­ver­tent­ly touched or approached near­er than a safe dis­tance by a per­son.
    Infor­ma­tion­al Note: This term applies to parts that are not suit­ably guard­ed, iso­lat­ed, or insu­lat­ed. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.
  3. (as applied to wiring meth­ods) On or attached to the sur­face or behind pan­els designed to allow access. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

extra­ne­ous con­duc­tive part — con­duc­tive part not form­ing part of the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion and liable to intro­duce an elec­tric poten­tial, gen­er­al­ly the elec­tric poten­tial of a local earth
[IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–12-11], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.17

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F

Fail-safe stand­still mon­i­tor
A fail-safe device which pro­vides a sig­nal that may be used to release locked guards, or con­trol a safe access con­di­tion when a machine has come to a stand­still. In the case of a fault, e.g., a defec­tive rota­tion sen­sor or inter­nal fault in the stand­still mon­i­tor­ing device, the fail-safe stand­still mon­i­tor fails into a safe state. See also “stand­still mon­i­tor”. Adapt­ed  from Schm­er­sal Cana­da Ltd.
Field Eval­u­a­tion (FE)
Field Eval­u­a­tion is a ser­vice pro­vid­ed by accred­it­ed inspec­tion bod­ies to bridge the gap between uncer­ti­fied equip­ment and a code-com­pli­ant instal­la­tion accept­able to the Author­i­ty Hav­ing Juris­dic­tion (AHJ). Field eval­u­a­tion is used in North Amer­i­ca to per­mit small vol­ume (1–200 units per year) pro­duc­tion of elec­tri­cal prod­ucts to be eval­u­at­ed by qual­i­fied inspec­tors and “field labelled” to show com­pli­ance with the Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code (NFPA 70) in the US, or the Cana­di­an Elec­tri­cal Code (CSA C22.1) in Cana­da. Inspec­tion is con­duct­ed by an accred­it­ed Inspec­tion Body. In the US, these are known as Nation­al­ly Rec­og­nized Test­ing Lab­o­ra­to­ries (NRTL), and in Cana­da as Accred­it­ed Inspec­tion Bod­ies.
FIT (unit) — Fail­ure in Time
1 FIT = 1 x 10-9 failures/h. The FIT unit finds its ori­gin in reli­a­bil­i­ty engi­neer­ing for the semi­con­duc­tor indus­try. In datasheets and cer­tifi­cates for SIL rat­ed equip­ment (main­ly sen­sors, actu­a­tors and the like intend­ed for use in the process indus­try accord­ing to IEC 61511) the unit FIT is com­mon­ly used for pre­sent­ing fail­ure rate data (lamb­da val­ues). The FIT unit was devel­oped to ease writ­ing and read­ing the infor­ma­tion. Most instru­ments specif­i­cal­ly designed for process indus­try SIL appli­ca­tions have fail­ure rates in the range of 1 x 10-9/h to 3 x 10-6/h. When expressed using FIT these val­ues are writ­ten as 10 to 3000 FIT.  This is eas­i­er to read, and eas­i­er to com­pare datasheets for instru­ments, etc. Bert Brouw­ers, LinkedIn.com, IEC 62061 and ISO 13849 machin­ery func­tion­al safe­ty group, accessed 28-Sep-2011.
Fixed guard
a guard kept in place (i.e., closed or attached to a fixed sur­face) either per­ma­nent­ly (e.g., by weld­ing) or by means of fas­ten­ers (screws, nuts, etc.), mak­ing removal or open­ing impos­si­ble with­out using tools. CSA Z432-04, §3
[See also “Guard”]
Flut­ter
Mid to high inter­mit­tent sound due to air flow. Sim­i­lar to a flag flap­ping in the wind. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny
Force Guid­ed, forced con­tacts
dep­re­cat­ed. See “Mechan­i­cal­ly Linked”.
Alter­nate Def­i­n­i­tion — Force Guid­ed Relays And Mir­ror Con­tact Relays
Force-guid­ed (or pos­i­tive­ly-guid­ed) relays have con­tacts that are mechan­i­cal­ly inter­locked such that two con­tacts on the relays will not con­tra­dict each oth­er, even in the event that the relay welds. Force-guid­ed relays have con­tacts that are force-guid­ed/me­chan­i­cal­ly linked con­form­ing to IEC60947-1–1 as required for use in safe­ty-relat­ed con­trol sys­tems.
The mir­ror con­tact relays con­form to EN 60947–4-1 by using a com­bi­na­tion of the relay block and the aux­il­iary con­tact block.
Force Guid­ed Relays And Mir­ror Con­tact Relays”, [online]. OMRON STI. Accessed: 6-Jun-2013. Avail­able: http://www.sti.com/force-guided-relays/.
Fre­quen­cy
The rate at which a cycle occurs with­in a giv­en time. [See CycleFord Motor Com­pa­ny
fre­quen­cy
num­ber of events (3.5.1.3) or out­comes per defined unit of time
NOTE Fre­quen­cy can be applied to past events (3.5.1.3) or to poten­tial future events, where it can be used as a mea­sure of like­li­hood (3.6.1.1) / prob­a­bil­i­ty (3.6.1.3).
Risk man­age­ment — Vocab­u­lary. Risk man­age­ment — Vocab­u­lary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.5. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion. 2009.
Func­tion­al Safe­ty
  1. Part of the over­all safe­ty relat­ing to the EUC and the EUC con­trol sys­tem that depends on the safe­ty-relat­ed sys­tems and exter­nal risk reduc­tion facil­i­ties oper­at­ing cor­rect­ly in response to their inputs.
    Out of control—Why con­trol sys­tems go wrong and how to pre­vent fail­ure. HSG 238.
  2. Func­tion­al safe­ty is part of the over­all safe­ty that depends on a sys­tem or equip­ment oper­at­ing cor­rect­ly in response to its inputs. The term “safe­ty-relat­ed” is used to describe sys­tems that are required to per­form a spe­cif­ic func­tion or func­tions to ensure risks are kept at an accept­ed lev­el. Such func­tions are, by def­i­n­i­tion, safe­ty func­tions. Two types of require­ments are nec­es­sary toachieve func­tion­al safe­ty:
    • safe­ty func­tion require­ments (what the func­tion does;) and
    • safe­ty integri­ty require­ments (the like­li­hood of a safe­ty func­tion being per­formed sat­is­fac­to­ri­ly).

    The safe­ty func­tion require­ments are derived from the haz­ard analy­sis and the safe­ty integri­ty require­ments are derived from a risk assess­ment. The high­er the lev­el of safe­ty integri­ty, the low­er the like­li­hood of dan­ger­ous fail­ure. “Func­tion­al safe­ty of electrical/electronic/programmable elec­tron­ic safe­ty-relat­ed sys­tems — Part 0: Func­tion­al safe­ty and IEC 61508”, IEC/TR 61508–0 Edi­tion 1, Inter­na­tion­al Elec­trotech­ni­cal Com­mis­sion, Gene­va, 2005

  3. sys­tem that per­forms in a way that does not present an unrea­son­able risk of injury to oper­a­tors or bystanders
    ISO 25119–1:2010, §3.20
func­tion­al safe­ty con­cept
entire col­lec­tion of safe­ty-relat­ed func­tions and inter­ac­tions nec­es­sary to achieve a desired behav­iour
Note 1 to entry: It is devel­oped dur­ing the con­cept phase of the safe­ty life cycle.
ISO 25119–1:2010, §3.21
func­tion­al safe­ty require­ment
require­ment for a safe­ty-relat­ed func­tion of the E/E/PES sys­tem
ISO 25119–1:2010, §3.22

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G

G-force — The addi­tion­al load or weight pro­duced in an object dur­ing accel­er­a­tion. When mea­sur­ing the lev­el or ampli­tude of a vibra­tion with­out sound, the unit G is added to asso­ciate the force of the vibra­tion to grav­i­ty. This is sim­i­lar to mea­sur­ing the weight of an object, which is also a func­tion of grav­i­ty. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Grav­el­ly Feel — A grind­ing or growl in a com­po­nent, sim­i­lar to the feel expe­ri­enced when dri­ving on grav­el. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny Grind — An abra­sive sound, sim­i­lar to using a grind­ing wheel, or rub­bing sand paper against wood. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Ground — The earth. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

See also Inter­na­tion­al elec­trotech­ni­cal vocab­u­lary (IEV). IEC 60050, [online]. Inter­na­tion­al Elec­trotech­ni­cal Com­miss­sion (IEC). Gene­va.

Ground Fault — An unin­ten­tion­al, elec­tri­cal­ly con­duc­tive con­nec­tion between an unground­ed con­duc­tor of an elec­tri­cal cir­cuit and the nor­mal­ly non–current-carrying con­duc­tors, metal­lic enclo­sures, metal­lic race­ways, metal­lic equip­ment, or earth. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Ground­ed (Ground­ing) — Con­nect­ed (con­nect­ing) to ground or to a con­duc­tive body that extends the ground con­nec­tion. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Ground­ed, Solid­ly — Con­nect­ed to ground with­out insert­ing any resis­tor or imped­ance device.Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Ground­ed Con­duc­tor — A sys­tem or cir­cuit con­duc­tor that is inten­tion­al­ly ground­ed. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Ground­ing Con­duc­tor, Equip­ment (EGC) — The con­duc­tive path(s) that pro­vides a ground-fault cur­rent path and con­nects nor­mal­ly non–current-carrying met­al parts of equip­ment togeth­er and to the sys­tem ground­ed con­duc­tor or to the ground­ing elec­trode con­duc­tor, or both.

Infor­ma­tion­al Note No. 1: It is rec­og­nized that the equip­ment ground­ing con­duc­tor also per­forms bond­ing.

Infor­ma­tion­al Note No. 2: See 250.118 for a list of accept­able equip­ment ground­ing con­duc­tors.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Guard —

  1. Cov­er or equip (a part of a machine) with a device to pro­tect the oper­a­tor. Oxford New Amer­i­can Dic­tio­nary
  2. A part of machin­ery specif­i­cal­ly used to pro­vide pro­tec­tion by means of a phys­i­cal bar­ri­er. Depend­ing on its con­struc­tion, a guard may be called a cas­ing, screen, door, enclos­ing guard, etc. CSA Z432-04, §3
  3. A bar­ri­er that pre­vents expo­sure to an iden­ti­fied haz­ard. E3.22 Some­times referred to as a “bar­ri­er guard.” ANSI B11.19 2003, §3.22
  4. Elec­tri­cal. Cov­ered, shield­ed, fenced, enclosed, or oth­er­wise pro­tect­ed by means of suit­able cov­ers, cas­ings, bar­ri­ers, rails, screens, mats, or plat­forms to remove the like­li­hood of approach or con­tact by per­sons or objects to a point of dan­ger. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

[See Adjustable bar­ri­er guard]

[See Bar­ri­er (fixed dis­tance) guard]

[See Fixed guard]

[See Inter­locked bar­ri­er guard]

[See Mov­able guard]

Guard lock­ing device

  1. a device that is designed to hold the guard closed and locked until the haz­ard has ceased. CSA Z432-04, §3
  2. Device intend­ed to lock a guard in the closed posi­tion and linked to the con­trol sys­tem so that:
    • the machine can­not oper­ate trn­til the guard is closed and locked;
    • the guard remains locked until the risk has passed.

    EN 1088:1996, §3.4

  3. device intend­ed to lock a guard in the closed posi­tion and linked to the con­trol sys­tem. ISO 14119

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H

harm — phys­i­cal injury or dam­age to the health of peo­ple, or dam­age to prop­er­ty or the envi­ron­ment ISO Guide 51:99

harm­ful event — occur­rence in which a haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion results in harm ISO Guide 51:99

haz­ard — poten­tial source of harm

NOTE The term haz­ard can be qual­i­fied in order to define its ori­gin or the nature of the expect­ed harm (e.g. elec­tric shock haz­ard, crush­ing haz­ard, cut­ting haz­ard, tox­ic haz­ard, fire haz­ard, drown­ing haz­ard).

ISO Guide 51:99

Haz­ard groups (ISO)

  • rel­e­vant haz­ard — Haz­ard which is iden­ti­fied as being present at or asso­ci­at­ed with the machine.Note 1 to entry: A rel­e­vant haz­ard is iden­ti­fied as the result of one step of the process described in ISO 12100:2010, Clause 5.Note 2 to entry: This term is includ­ed as basic ter­mi­nol­o­gy for type B- and type C-stan­dards.Safe­ty of machin­ery — Gen­er­al prin­ci­ples for design — Risk assess­ment and risk reduc­tion. ISO 12100, 3.7. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion. Gene­va. 2010
  • sig­nif­i­cant haz­ard — Haz­ard which has been iden­ti­fied as rel­e­vant and which requires spe­cif­ic action by the design­er to elim­i­nate or to reduce the risk accord­ing to the risk assess­ment.Note 1 to entry: This term is includ­ed as basic ter­mi­nol­o­gy for type B- and type C-stan­dards.Safe­ty of machin­ery — Gen­er­al prin­ci­ples for design — Risk assess­ment and risk reduc­tion. ISO 12100, 3.8. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion. Gene­va. 2010

Haz­ardous ener­gy 

  1. Any elec­tri­cal, mechan­i­cal, hydraulic, pneu­mat­ic, chem­i­cal, nuclear, ther­mal, grav­i­ta­tion­al, or oth­er ener­gy that can harm per­son­nel. CSA Z460 2005
  2. Any elec­tri­cal, mechan­i­cal, hydraulic, pneu­mat­ic, chem­i­cal, nuclear, ther­mal, grav­i­ty or oth­er ener­gy that could cause injury to per­son­nel. ANSI Z244.1–2003, 2.10

See also “Ener­gy Source

haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion

  1. Cir­cum­stance in which peo­ple, prop­er­ty or the envi­ron­ment are exposed to one or more haz­ards ISO Guide 51:99
  2. A set of cir­cum­stances that may give rise to harm to a per­son. CSA Z432-04, §3

haz­ardous event — event that can cause harm NOTE A haz­ardous event can occur over a short peri­od of time or over an extend­ed peri­od of time. ISO 12100:2010 §3.9

haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion— cir­cum­stance in which a per­son is exposed to at least one haz­ard NOTE The expo­sure can result in harm imme­di­ate­ly or over a peri­od of time. ISO 12100:2010 §3.10

haz­ard zone— dan­ger zone any space with­in and/or around machin­ery in which a per­son can be exposed to a haz­ard ISO 12100:2010, §3.12

Hertz (Hz)

  • A unit of mea­sure used to describe noise and vibra­tion con­cerns expressed in cycles per sec­ond. [See Cycle and Fre­quen­cyFord Motor Com­pa­ny
  • the SI unit of fre­quen­cy, equal to one cycle per sec­ond.The New Oxford Amer­i­can Dic­tio­nary
  • n. [from the Ger­man physi­cist Hein­rich Hertz.] A unit of fre­quen­cy equal to one cycle per sec­ond; it is abbre­vi­at­ed Hz. It is com­mon­ly used to spec­i­fy the fre­quen­cy of radio waves, and also the clock fre­quen­cies in dig­i­tal com­put­ers. For these appli­ca­tions, kilo­hertz and mega­hertz are the most com­mon­ly used units, derived from hertz. The Col­lab­o­ra­tive Inter­na­tion­al Dic­tio­nary of Eng­lish
  • n. the unit of fre­quen­cy; one hertz has a peri­od­ic inter­val of one sec­ond. Word­net 3.0

Hiss — Steady, high-fre­quen­cy noise. Vac­u­um leak sound. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Hoot — A steady, low-fre­quen­cy tone, sounds like blow­ing over a long neck bot­tle. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Howl — A mid-range fre­quen­cy noise between drum­ming and whine. Also described as a hum. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Hum — Mid-fre­quen­cy steady sound, like a small fan motor. Also described as a howl. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

hier­ar­chy of con­trols — rank­ing of mea­sures tak­en to pre­vent or reduce haz­ard expo­sure accord­ing to effec­tive­ness. Mea­sures are ordered from the most effec­tive mea­sures that elim­i­nate haz­ards to the least effec­tive mea­sures that may achieve only lim­it­ed risk reduc­tion. Based on Uni­ver­si­ty of South­ern Queens­land (USQ), Human Resources — Glos­sary. Accessed 24-Feb-2011

HMI — See Human-Machine Inter­face.

hold-to-run con­trol device — a con­trol device that is designed to per­mit move­ment of machin­ery as long as the con­trol is held in a set posi­tion. Once released, this device auto­mat­i­cal­ly returns the machine to the stop posi­tion. CSA Z432-04, §3

Human-Machine Inter­face — This is where peo­ple and tech­nol­o­gy meet. This people/ tech­nol­o­gy inter­cept can be as sim­ple as the grip on a hand tool or as com­plex as the flight deck of a jum­bo jet. ISA | Ter­mi­nol­o­gy, accessed 3-Mar-11.

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I

Indus­tri­al Con­trol Pan­el
An assem­bly of two or more com­po­nents con­sist­ing of one of the fol­low­ing:
  1. pow­er cir­cuit com­po­nents only, such as motor con­trollers, over­load relays, fused dis­con­nect switch­es, and cir­cuit break­ers;
  2. con­trol cir­cuit com­po­nents only, such as push but­tons, pilot lights, selec­tor switch­es, timers, switch­es, and con­trol relays;
  3. a com­bi­na­tion of pow­er and con­trol cir­cuit com­po­nents. These com­po­nents, with asso­ci­at­ed wiring and ter­mi­nals, are mount­ed on, or con­tained with­in, an enclo­sure or mount­ed on a sub pan­el. The indus­tri­al con­trol pan­el does not include the con­trolled equip­ment.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Indus­tri­al robot
an auto­mat­i­cal­ly con­trolled, repro­gram­ma­ble mul­ti-pur­pose manip­u­la­tor pro­gram­ma­ble in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in indus­tri­al automa­tion appli­ca­tions. CSA Z434-03, §3 [See Robot]
Indus­tri­al robot sys­tem
equip­ment that includes the robot(s) (hard­ware and soft­ware), con­sist­ing of the manip­u­la­tor pow­er sup­ply and con­trol sys­tem, the end-effector(s), and any oth­er asso­ci­at­ed machin­ery and equip­ment with­in the safe­guard­ed space. CSA Z434-03, §3
Ingo­ing Pinch Point
An ingo­ing pinch point is the point at which any part of a person’s body, such as fin­gers or hand, is like­ly to be drawn between a rotat­ing machine mem­ber and anoth­er rotat­ing or fixed mem­ber and be injured.

E2.11 Ingo­ing Pinch Point. Exam­ples are two gears in mesh, a belt and pul­ley, or a wheel and par­tial guard. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.11

Also see “Pinch Point

In Sight From (With­in Sight From, With­in Sight)
Where this Code spec­i­fies that one equip­ment shall be “in sight from,” “with­in sight from,” or “with­in sight of,” and so forth, anoth­er equip­ment, the spec­i­fied equip­ment is to be vis­i­ble and not more than 15 m (50 ft) dis­tant from the oth­er. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.
Instruc­tion (for use)
  1. infor­ma­tion by the pro­duc­er of a prod­uct for the safe and effi­cient use of the prod­uct IEC 62079:2001, 3.6
  2. infor­ma­tion pro­vid­ed by the sup­pli­er of a prod­uct to the user, con­tain­ing all the nec­es­sary pro­vi­sions to con­vey the actions to be per­formed for the safe and effi­cient use of the prod­uct
    Note 1 to entry: Instruc­tions for use of a sin­gle prod­uct com­prise one or more doc­u­ments .
    [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 14:2003, def­i­n­i­tion 2.8, mod­i­fied] IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.19

Instruc­tion mate­r­i­al — any applic­a­ble means for the trans­fer of infor­ma­tion con­tain­ing instruc­tions IEC 62079:2001, 3.7

Intend­ed use
exhaus­tive range of func­tions or fore­seen appli­ca­tions defined and designed by the sup­pli­er of the prod­uct
Note 1 to entry: Func­tions or appli­ca­tions not list­ed by the sup­pli­er are exclud­ed from the intend­ed use of the prod­uct.
Note 2 to entry: Addi­tion­al or mod­i­fied func­tions or appli­ca­tions result­ing from mod­i­fi­ca­tions not sanc­tioned by the sup­pli­er of the prod­uct are exclud­ed from the intend­ed use.
IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.20
[see also “rea­son­ably fore­see­able mis­use”]
Inten­si­ty
The phys­i­cal qual­i­ty of sound that relates to the strength of the vibra­tion (mea­sured in deci­bels). The high­er the sound’s ampli­tude, the high­er the inten­si­ty and vice ver­sa. [See Ampli­tude.] Ford Motor Com­pa­ny
inter­lock
An inter­lock is a fea­ture that makes the state of two mech­a­nisms or func­tions mutu­al­ly depen­dent. It may be used to pre­vent unde­sired states in a finite-state machine and may con­sist of any elec­tri­cal, elec­tron­ic, or mechan­i­cal devices or sys­tems. In most appli­ca­tions, an inter­lock is used to help pre­vent a machine from harm­ing its oper­a­tor or dam­ag­ing itself by pre­vent­ing one ele­ment from chang­ing state due to the state of anoth­er ele­ment, and vice ver­sa.
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Inter­lock (engi­neer­ing). [online] Avail­able at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlock_(engineering) [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].
Inter­locked bar­ri­er guard
a fixed or mov­able guard attached and inter­locked in such a man­ner that the machine tool will not cycle or will not con­tin­ue to cycle unless the guard itself or its hinged or mov­able sec­tion enclos­es the haz­ardous area. CSA Z432-04, §3 [See Guard]
Inter­lock­ing device (inter­lock)
  1. Mechan­i­cal, elec­tri­cal or oth­er type of device, the pur­pose of which is to pre­vent the oper­a­tion of machine ele­ments under spec­i­fied con­di­tions (gen­er­al­ly as long as a guard is not closed). EN 1088:96, §3.1
  2. mechan­i­cal, elec­tri­cal or oth­er type of device, the pur­pose of which is to pre­vent the oper­a­tion of haz­ardous machine func­tions under spec­i­fied con­di­tions (gen­er­al­ly as long as a guard is not closed) ISO 12100:2010, 3.28.1
Inter­lock­ing guard
  1. Guard asso­ci­at­ed with an inter­lock­ing device, so that:
    • the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed;
    • if the guard is opened while the haz­ardous machine func­tions are oper­at­ing, a stop instruc­tion is giv­en;
    • when the guard is closed, the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can oper­ate, but the clo­sure of the guard does not by itself ini­ti­ate their oper­a­tion.
      NOTE. In Eng­lish ‘stop sig­nal’ and ‘stop com­mand’ are syn­onyms for ‘stop instruc­tion’. In Ger­man, ‘Stop-Sig­nal’ and ‘Stop-Befehl’ are syn­onyms for ‘Halt-Befehl’. In French ‘ordre d’arret’ is an all-encom­pass­ing term. EN 1088:96, §3.2
  2. guard asso­ci­at­ed with an inter­lock­ing device so that, togeth­er with the con­trol sys­tem of the machine, the fol­low­ing func­tions are per­formed:
    • the haz­ardous machine func­tions “cov­ered” by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed;
    • if the guard is opened while haz­ardous machine func­tions are oper­at­ing, a stop com­mand is giv­en;
    • when the guard is closed, the haz­ardous machine func­tions “cov­ered” by the guard can oper­ate. The clo­sure of the guard does not by itself start the haz­ardous machine func­tions. ISO 12100:2010, 3.27.4

[See Guard]

Inter­lock­ing guard with guard lock­ing
Guard asso­ci­at­ed with an inter­lock­ing device and a guard lock­ing device so that:
    • the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed and locked;
    • the guard remains closed and locked until the risk of injury from the haz­ardous machine func­tions has passed;
    • when the guard is closed and locked, the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can oper­ate, but the clo­sure and lock­ing of the guard do not by them­selves ini­ti­ate their oper­a­tion.

EN 1088:96, §3.3 [See Guard] [See Guard Lock­ing Device]

inter­lock­ing guard with a start func­tion (con­trol guard)
spe­cial form of an inter­lock­ing guard which, once it has reached its closed posi­tion, gives a com­mand to ini­ti­ate the haz­ardous machine function(s) with­out the use of a sep­a­rate start con­trol. NOTE ISO 12100:2010, 6.3.3.2.5 gives detailed pro­vi­sions regard­ing the con­di­tion of use. ISO 12100:2010, 3.27.6
(elec­tri­cal­ly) instruct­ed per­son
per­son ade­quate­ly advised or super­vised by elec­tri­cal­ly skilled per­sons to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which elec­tro­heat­ing instal­la­tions can cre­ate (oper­at­ing and main­te­nance staff)

[IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–18-02, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.7

Iso­lat­ed (as applied to loca­tion)
Not read­i­ly acces­si­ble to per­sons unless spe­cial means for access are used. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

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K

Knock — A heavy, loud, rep­e­ti­tious sound, like a knock on the door. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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L

like­li­hood — chance of some­thing hap­pen­ing

NOTE 1 In risk man­age­ment ter­mi­nol­o­gy, the word “like­li­hood” is used to refer to the chance of some­thing hap­pen­ing, whether defined, mea­sured or deter­mined objec­tive­ly or sub­jec­tive­ly, qual­i­ta­tive­ly or quan­ti­ta­tive­ly, and described using gen­er­al terms or math­e­mat­i­cal­ly [such as a prob­a­bil­i­ty (3.6.1.4) or a fre­quen­cy (3.6.1.5) over a giv­en time peri­od].

NOTE 2 The Eng­lish term “like­li­hood” does not have a direct equiv­a­lent in some lan­guages; instead, the equiv­a­lent of the term “prob­a­bil­i­ty” is often used. How­ev­er, in Eng­lish, “prob­a­bil­i­ty” is often nar­row­ly inter­pret­ed as a math­e­mat­i­cal term. There­fore, in risk man­age­ment ter­mi­nol­o­gy, “like­li­hood” is used with the intent that it should have the same broad inter­pre­ta­tion as the term “prob­a­bil­i­ty” has in many lan­guages oth­er than Eng­lish.

Risk man­age­ment — Vocab­u­lary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.1. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion. 2009

List­ed — Equip­ment, mate­ri­als, or ser­vices includ­ed in a list pub­lished by an orga­ni­za­tion that is accept­able to the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion and con­cerned with eval­u­a­tion of prod­ucts or ser­vices, that main­tains peri­od­ic inspec­tion of pro­duc­tion of list­ed equip­ment or mate­ri­als or peri­od­ic eval­u­a­tion of ser­vices, and whose list­ing states that either the equip­ment, mate­r­i­al, or ser­vice meets appro­pri­ate des­ig­nat­ed stan­dards or has been test­ed and found suit­able for a spec­i­fied pur­pose.

Infor­ma­tion­al Note: The means for iden­ti­fy­ing list­ed equip­ment may vary for each orga­ni­za­tion con­cerned with prod­uct eval­u­a­tion, some of which do not rec­og­nize equip­ment as list­ed unless it is also labeled. Use of the sys­tem employed by the list­ing orga­ni­za­tion allows the author­i­ty hav­ing juris­dic­tion to iden­ti­fy a list­ed prod­uct.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Live — elec­tri­cal­ly con­nect­ed to a source of volt­age dif­fer­ence, or elec­tri­cal­ly charged so as to have a volt­age dif­fer­ent from that of the earth; the term may be used in place of the term “cur­rent-car­ry­ing”, where the intent is clear, to avoid rep­e­ti­tion of the longer term. CSA SPE-1000:99, §2

Live Parts — Ener­gized con­duc­tive com­po­nents. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Lock­out

  1. place­ment of a lock or tag on an ener­gy-iso­lat­ing device in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, there­by indi­cat­ing that the ener­gy-iso­lat­ing device is not to be oper­at­ed until removal of the lock or tag in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure. CSA Z460, 2005
  2. a mechan­i­cal means of lock­ing that uses an indi­vid­u­al­ly keyed lock to secure an ener­gy-iso­lat­ing device in a posi­tion that pre­vents ener­giza­tion of a machine, equip­ment, or a process. CSA Z460
  3. The place­ment of a lock­out device on an ener­gy iso­lat­ing device, in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, ensur­ing that the ener­gy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled can­not be oper­at­ed until the lock­out device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

Lock­out device

  1. A pos­i­tive means such as a lock that secures an ener­gy iso­lat­ing device in a posi­tion that pre­vents the ener­giz­ing of a machine, equip­ment or process. ANSI Z244.1–2003
  2. A device that uti­lizes a pos­i­tive means such as a lock, either key or com­bi­na­tion type, to hold an ener­gy iso­lat­ing device in the safe posi­tion and pre­vent the ener­giz­ing of a machine or equip­ment. Includ­ed are blank flanges and bolt­ed slip blinds. 29 CFR 1910.147

[See “Ener­gy Iso­lat­ing Device”]

[See “Tagout Device”]

lockout/tagout — The place­ment of a lock/tag on the ener­gy iso­lat­ing device in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, indi­cat­ing that the ener­gy iso­lat­ing device shall not be oper­at­ed until removal of the lock/tag in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure. (The term “lockout/tagout” allows the use of a lock­out device, a tagout device, or a com­bi­na­tion of both.) ANSI Z244.1–2003, 2.10

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M

machine or machin­ery — assem­bly, fit­ted with or intend­ed to be fit­ted with a dri­ve sys­tem con­sist­ing of linked parts or com­po­nents, at least one of which moves, and which are joined togeth­er for a spe­cif­ic appli­ca­tion. NOTE 1: The term “machin­ery” also cov­ers an assem­bly of machines which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and con­trolled so that they func­tion as an inte­gral whole. ISO 12100:2010

Man­u­al — doc­u­ment con­tain­ing user infor­ma­tion, for exam­ple instruc­tions IEC 62079:2001, 3.8

Main­te­nance — com­bi­na­tion of all tech­ni­cal and admin­is­tra­tive actions intend­ed to retain an item or a prod­uct in, or restore it to, a use­ful and safe con­di­tion in which it can per­form the required func­tion; this includes super­vis­ing actions, recon­di­tion­ing, repair­ing, adjust­ing, and clean­ing [IEV 191–07-01, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.9

Mechan­i­cal­ly Linked — applies to mechan­i­cal­ly linked aux­il­iary con­tact ele­ments includ­ed in con­trol cir­cuit devices where actu­at­ing force is pro­vid­ed inter­nal­ly, such as con­tac­tor-relays. Link­age between the aux­il­iary and main con­tacts is not cov­ered.

NOTE 1 A typ­i­cal appli­ca­tion of mechan­i­cal­ly linked con­tact ele­ments is e.g. self-mon­i­tor­ing in machine con­trol cir­cuits.

NOTE 2 Mechan­i­cal­ly linked con­tact ele­ments have pre­vi­ous­ly been referred to as forced con­tacts, pos­i­tive­ly acti­vat­ed con­tacts, or linked con­tacts, or, in French: “con­tacts for­cés” or in Ger­man: “Zwangs­ge­führte Kon­tak­te”.

NOTE 3 Con­trol cir­cuit devices actu­at­ed exter­nal­ly (e.g. push-but­ton or lim­it-switch­es) do not have an actu­at­ing force lim­it­ed to a max­i­mum val­ue (see L.8.4 a) 2)), so they can­not have mechan­i­cal­ly linked con­tact ele­ments. For such devices, safe­ty appli­ca­tions gen­er­al­ly use con­tacts with “direct open­ing action” (see Annex K). IEC 60947–5-1, Ed. 3, 2009 §L.1.1

Moan — A con­stant, low-fre­quen­cy tone. Also described as a hum. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Mov­able guarda guard gen­er­al­ly con­nect­ed by mechan­i­cal means (e.g., hinges or slides) to the machine frame or an adja­cent fixed ele­ment and that can be opened with­out the use of tools. The open­ing and clos­ing of this type of guard may be pow­ered. CSA Z432-04, §3

[See Guard]

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N

Neu­tral Con­duc­tor — The con­duc­tor con­nect­ed to the neu­tral point of a sys­tem that is intend­ed to car­ry cur­rent under nor­mal con­di­tions. Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

Neu­tral Point — The com­mon point on a wye-con­nec­tion in a polyphase sys­tem or mid­point on a sin­gle-phase, 3-wire sys­tem, or mid­point of a sin­gle-phase por­tion of a 3-phase delta sys­tem, or a mid­point of a 3-wire, direct-cur­rent sys­tem.

Infor­ma­tion­al Note: At the neu­tral point of the sys­tem, the vec­to­r­i­al sum of the nom­i­nal volt­ages from all oth­er phas­es with­in the sys­tem that uti­lize the neu­tral, with respect to the neu­tral point, is zero poten­tial.

Nation­al Elec­tri­cal Code. NFPA 70. Nation­al Fire Pro­tec­tion Asso­ci­a­tion, Bat­tery­march Park. 2014.

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P

per­son­al pro­tec­tive equip­ment — spe­cial device or appli­ance designed to be worn or held by an indi­vid­ual for pro­tec­tion against one or more health and safe­ty haz­ards IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.27

Ping — A short-dura­tion, high-fre­quen­cy sound, which has a slight echo. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Pitch — The phys­i­cal qual­i­ty of sound that relates to its fre­quen­cy. Pitch increas­es as fre­quen­cy increas­es and vice ver­sa. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Pinch Point — Any point oth­er than the trap­ping space at which it is pos­si­ble for a part of the body to be caught between the mov­ing parts of a machine or between mov­ing and sta­tion­ary parts of a machine or aux­il­iary equip­ment, result­ing in injury. E2.19 Pinch Point. The term “pinch point,” as used in this stan­dard, refers only to haz­ards that may exist as a part of the machine or its asso­ci­at­ed parts. The expres­sion is not used to describe haz­ards caused by the tool­ing at the trap­ping space, since these haz­ards are a dif­fer­ent prob­lem and require dif­fer­ent treat­ment. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.19

[See ‘Ingo­ing Pinch Point’]

pos­i­tive dri­ve — a con­nec­tion between actu­a­tor and con­tact ele­ment such that the force applied to the actu­a­tor is direct­ly trans­mit­ted to the con­tact ele­ment IEC 60947–5-1, Ed. 3, 2009 §2.4.4.4
[Also see “Direct Dri­ve”]

Pos­i­tive­ly Guid­ed — Dep­re­cat­ed. See “Mechan­i­cal­ly Linked

Pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple (law & pol­i­cy)

  1. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple ensures that a sub­stance or activ­i­ty pos­ing a threat to the envi­ron­ment is pre­vent­ed from adverse­ly affect­ing the envi­ron­ment, even if there is no con­clu­sive sci­en­tif­ic proof link­ing that par­tic­u­lar sub­stance or activ­i­ty to envi­ron­men­tal dam­age. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple is a guid­ing prin­ci­ple. Its pur­pose is to encour­age-per­haps even oblige-deci­sion mak­ers to con­sid­er the like­ly harm­ful effects of their activ­i­ties on the envi­ron­ment before they pur­sue those activ­i­ties. James Cameron and Juli Abouchar, The Pre­cau­tion­ary Prin­ci­ple: A Fun­da­men­tal Prin­ci­ple of Law and Pol­i­cy for the Pro­tec­tion of the Glob­al Envi­ron­ment, 14 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 1 (1991), http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/iclr/vol14/iss1/2. Get this paper through Google Schol­ar.
  2. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple or pre­cau­tion­ary approach states that if an action or pol­i­cy has a sus­pect­ed risk of caus­ing harm to the pub­lic or to the envi­ron­ment, in the absence of sci­en­tif­ic con­sen­sus that the action or pol­i­cy is harm­ful, the bur­den of proof that it is not harm­ful falls on those tak­ing the action. Pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple — Wikipedia
  3. In order to pro­tect the envi­ron­ment, the pre­cau­tion­ary approach shall be wide­ly applied by States accord­ing to their capa­bil­i­ties. Where there are threats of seri­ous or irre­versible dam­age, lack of full sci­en­tif­ic cer­tain­ty shall not be used as a rea­son for post­pon­ing cost-effec­tive mea­sures to pre­vent envi­ron­men­tal degra­da­tion. 1992  UNEP Rio Con­fer­ence. The Pre­cau­tion­ary Prin­ci­ple”, Unit­ed Nations Edu­ca­tion­al, Sci­en­tif­ic and Cul­tur­al Orga­ni­za­tion, UNESCO, Paris, 2005.

    Note
    — This ver­sion of the prin­ci­ple is some­times referred to as the ‘weak pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple’. Ori­gin — Ger­man, 1930, Vor­sorgeprinzip.Note — The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple is often cit­ed in OHS work and could be para­phrased, “If a prod­uct, process or ser­vice is sus­pect­ed of caus­ing harm to peo­ple in the work­place, in the absence of sci­en­tif­ic con­sen­sus that the prod­uct, process or ser­vice is harm­ful, lack of full sci­en­tif­ic cer­tain­ty shall not be used as a rea­son for post­pon­ing mea­sures to reduce the risk of harm to peo­ple in the work­place. Those respon­si­ble for intro­duc­ing the prod­uct, process or ser­vice into the work­place shall bear the bur­den of proof of safe­ty relat­ing to the safe­ty of the prod­uct, process or ser­vice.”
    Note: This is a ver­sion of the “strong pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple.” — Doug Nix

Point of Oper­a­tion — That point or area where the cut­ting edge(s) of the tool is in con­tact with the work­piece. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.20

prob­a­bil­i­ty — mea­sure of the chance of occur­rence expressed as a num­ber between 0 and 1, where 0 is impos­si­bil­i­ty and 1 is absolute cer­tain­ty

NOTE See def­i­n­i­tion 3.6.1.1, Note 2.
Risk man­age­ment — Vocab­u­lary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.4. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion. 2009

Pro­tec­tive mea­sure — means used to reduce risk NOTE Pro­tec­tive mea­sures include risk reduc­tion by inher­ent­ly safe design, pro­tec­tive devices, per­son­al pro­tec­tive equip­ment, infor­ma­tion for use and instal­la­tion, and train­ing. ISO Guide 51:99

See also “Com­ple­men­tary Pro­tec­tive Mea­sures

pro­tec­tive con­duc­tor — (iden­ti­fi­ca­tion: PE) con­duc­tor pro­vid­ed for pur­pos­es of safe­ty, for exam­ple pro­tec­tion against elec­tric shock
NOTE In an elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion, the PE con­duc­tor is nor­mal­ly also con­sid­ered as a pro­tec­tive earth­ing con­duc­tor.

[I EC 60050–195: 1998, 195–02-09], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.38

pro­tec­tive earth­ing [pro­tec­tive ground­ing (US)] — earth­ing a point or points in a sys­tem or in an instal­la­tion or in equip­ment, for pur­pos­es of elec­tri­cal safe­ty

[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–01-11], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.39

pro­tec­tive equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem (PEBS) — equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem pro­vid­ing pro­tec­tive-equipo­ten­tial-bond­ing

[IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–13-31], EN 60519–1, 3.40

pro­tec­tive earth­ing con­duc­tor [pro­tec­tive ground­ing con­duc­tor (US)] — pro­tec­tive con­duc­tor pro­vid­ed for pro­tec­tive earth­ing

[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–02-11], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.41

Pos­i­tive mode actu­a­tion — If a mov­ing mechan­i­cal com­po­nent inevitably moves anoth­er com­po­nent along with it, either by direct con­tact or via rigid ele­ments, the sec­ond com­po­nent is said to be actu­at­ed in the pos­i­tive mode (or positively)by the first one. EN 1088:1996, §3.6

Pos­i­tive open­ing oper­a­tion of a con­tact ele­ment — The achieve­ment of con­tact sep­a­ra­tion as the direct result of a spec­i­fied move­ment of the switch actu­a­tor through non-resilient mem­bers (e.g. not depen­dent upon springs). (2.2 of chap­ter 3 ‘Spe­cial require­ments for con­trol switch­es with pos­i­tive open­ing oper­a­tion’ of EN 60947–5-1: 1991). NOTE: For flu­id pow­er, the equiv­a­lent con­cept may be called ‘pos­i­tive mode inter­rup­tion’. EN 1088:1996, §3.7

Pump­ing Feel — A slow, puls­ing move­ment. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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R

rat­ed volt­age — volt­age for which an instal­la­tion (or a part there­of) is designed EN 60519–1:2011, 3.42

Rat­tle — A ran­dom and momen­tary or short-dura­tion noise. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Reac­tor — The com­po­nent, or part, that receives a vibra­tion from an orig­i­na­tor and con­duc­tor and reacts to the vibra­tion by mov­ing. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Reli­a­bil­i­ty — abil­i­ty of a machine or its com­po­nents or equip­ment to per­form a required func­tion under spec­i­fied con­di­tions and for a giv­en peri­od of time with­out fail­ing ISO 12100:2010 §3.2

Rustling — Inter­mit­tent sound of vary­ing fre­quen­cy, sounds sim­i­lar to shuf­fling through leaves. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Rea­son­ably fore­see­able mis­use

  1. use of a prod­uct, process or ser­vice in a way not intend­ed by the sup­pli­er, but which may result from read­i­ly pre­dictable human behav­iour [3.14 of ISO/IEC Guide 51] IEC 62079:2001, 3.1
  2. use of a prod­uct in a way not described as intend­ed use in the instruc­tions for use, but which may result from read­i­ly pre­dictable human behav­iour
    [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51 : 1999, def­i­n­i­tion 3.14, mod­i­fied] IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.31

Resid­ual risk — risk remain­ing after pro­tec­tive mea­sures have been tak­en. CSA Z432-04, §3

Risk

  1. com­bi­na­tion of the prob­a­bil­i­ty of occur­rence of harm and the sever­i­ty of that harm ISO Guide 51:99
  2. (of harm to an indi­vid­ual) a com­bi­na­tion of the prob­a­bil­i­ty and the degree of the pos­si­ble injury or dam­age to health in a haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion. CSA Z432-04, §3

Risk analy­sis — a com­bi­na­tion of the deter­mi­na­tion of the lim­its of the machine, haz­ard iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, and risk esti­ma­tion. CSA Z432-04, §3

Risk assess­ment — the over­all process of risk analy­sis and risk eval­u­a­tion. CSA Z432-04, §3

Risk esti­ma­tion — a judg­ment, on the basis of risk analy­sis, of whether ade­quate risk reduc­tion has been achieved. CSA Z432-04, §3

Robot — Orig­i­nal­ly from the Czech, rob­o­ta, mean­ing drudgery.

  1. A mechan­i­cal device that some­times resem­bles a human and is capa­ble of per­form­ing a vari­ety of often com­plex human tasks on com­mand or by being pro­grammed in advance.
  2. A machine or device that oper­ates auto­mat­i­cal­ly or by remote con­trol.
  3. A per­son who works mechan­i­cal­ly with­out orig­i­nal thought, espe­cial­ly one who responds auto­mat­i­cal­ly to the com­mands of oth­ers.

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/robot#ixzz1C697ZeGf [See Indus­tri­al Robot]

Rough­ness — A medi­um-fre­quen­cy vibra­tion. A slight­ly high­er fre­quen­cy than a shake. This type of vibra­tion is usu­al­ly relat­ed to dri­ve­train com­po­nents. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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S

safe­ty

  1. free­dom from unac­cept­able risk
    NOTE Adapt­ed from ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996, def­i­n­i­tion 2.5. ISO Guide 51:99
  2. free­dom from unac­cept­able risk of harm
    NOTE In stan­dard­iza­tion, the safe­ty of prod­ucts, process­es and ser­vices is gen­er­al­ly con­sid­ered with a view to achiev­ing the opti­mum bal­ance of a num­ber of fac­tors, includ­ing non-tech­ni­cal fac­tors such as human behav­iour, that will elim­i­nate avoid­able risks of harm to per­sons and goods to an accept­able degree. ISO Guide 2:2004, §2.5

safety–related part of a con­trol sys­tem (SRP/CS) — part of a con­trol sys­tem that responds to safe­ty-relat­ed input sig­nals and gen­er­ates safe­ty-relat­ed out­put sig­nals.

NOTE 1 The com­bined safe­ty-relat­ed parts of a con­trol sys­tem start at the point where the safe­ty-relat­ed input sig­nals are ini­ti­at­ed (includ­ing e.g. the actu­at­ing cam and the roller of the posi­tion switch) and end at the out­put of the pow­er con­trol ele­ments (includ­ing, for exam­ple, the main con­tacts of a con­tac­tor). NOTE 2 If mon­i­tor­ing sys­tems are used for diag­nos­tics, they are also con­sid­ered as SRP/CS. ISO 13849–1:2006, 3.1.1

Ser­vice — set of func­tions offered to users by supplier’s orga­ni­za­tion sup­port­ing clients with main­te­nance [IEV 191–01-04, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.16

sever­i­tySee Wik­tionary.

Shake — A low-fre­quen­cy vibra­tion, usu­al­ly with vis­i­ble com­po­nent move­ment. Usu­al­ly relates to tires, wheels, brake drums or brake discs if it is vehi­cle speed sen­si­tive, or engine if it is engine speed sen­si­tive. Also referred to as a shim­my or wob­ble. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Shim­my — An abnor­mal vibra­tion or wob­bling, felt as a side-to-side motion of the steer­ing wheel in the dri­ve­shaft rota­tion. Also described as wad­dle. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Shud­der — A low-fre­quen­cy vibra­tion that is felt through the steer­ing wheel or seat dur­ing light brake appli­ca­tion. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

sin­gle fault con­di­tion — con­di­tion in which one means for pro­tec­tion against haz­ard is defec­tive
NOTE If a sin­gle fault con­di­tion results unavoid­ably in anoth­er sin­gle fault con­di­tion, the two fail­ures are con­sid­ered as one sin­gle fault con­di­tion.
[IEC 60050–851 :2008, 851–11-20], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.45

Skilled per­son

  1. per­son with rel­e­vant edu­ca­tion and expe­ri­ence to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which oper­a­tion or main­te­nance of a prod­uct can cre­ate [IEV 195–04-01 and 3.52 of IEC 60204–1, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.17
  2. indi­vid­ual with rel­e­vant tech­ni­cal edu­ca­tion, train­ing and/or expe­ri­ence enabling him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards occur­ring dur­ing use of a prod­uct [SOURCE: IEV 195–04-01 , mod­i­fied and IEC 60204–1 :2005, def­i­n­i­tion 3.53, mod­i­fied] IEC82079-1, 2012, §3.37
  3. (elec­tri­cal­ly) skilled per­son — per­son with rel­e­vant edu­ca­tion and expe­ri­ence to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which elec­tro­heat­ing instal­la­tions can cre­ate
    [IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–18-01, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.8

Slap — A res­o­nance from flat sur­faces, such as safe­ty belt web­bing or door trim pan­els. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Stand­still fre­quen­cy
A pro­grammed fixed ref­er­ence val­ue for recog­ni­tion of stand­still. On fre­quen­cy “stand­still,” the enable cir­cuits are switched on and guard lock­ing sole­noids con­trolled by a fail-safe stand­still mon­i­tor are released. Schm­er­sal Cana­da Ltd.
Stand­still mon­i­tor
On stand­still of a machine, the mon­i­tor gives the enable sig­nal that can be used to release guard lock­ing devices or cre­ate a safe access con­di­tion. See “fail-safe stand­still mon­i­tor.” Adapt­ed from Schm­er­sal Cana­da Ltd.

State of the art — devel­oped stage of tech­ni­cal capa­bil­i­ty at a giv­en time as regards prod­ucts, process­es and ser­vices, based on the rel­e­vant con­sol­i­dat­ed find­ings of sci­ence, tech­nol­o­gy and expe­ri­ence ISO Guide 2:2004, §1.4 See “Acknowl­edged Rule of Tech­nol­o­gy”

Stan­dard — Any norm, con­ven­tion or require­ment Tech­ni­cal Stan­dard, [online]. Wikipedia. Avail­able: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_standard. Accessed: 13-Jun-13.

ISO Stan­dards Tax­on­o­my (Stan­dard Types)

  • type-A stan­dard — Basic safe­ty stan­dard. Stan­dard giv­ing basic con­cepts, prin­ci­ples for design and gen­er­al aspects that can be applied to machin­ery.
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Intro­duc­tion.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.1. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion, Gene­va. 2012.
  • type-B stan­dard — Gener­ic safe­ty stan­dard. Stan­dard deal­ing with one safe­ty aspect or one type of safe­guard that can be used across a wide range of machin­ery.
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Intro­duc­tion.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.2. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion, Gene­va. 2012.
    • type-B1 stan­dard — Type-B stan­dard on par­tic­u­lar safe­ty aspects (for exam­ple, safe­ty dis­tances, sur­face tem­per­a­ture, noise).
      Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Intro­duc­tion.
      ISO Guide 78, 3.2.1. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion, Gene­va. 2012.
    • type-B2 stan­dard — Type-B stan­dard on safe­guards (for exam­ple, two-hand con­trol devices, inter­lock­ing devices, pres­sure sen­si­tive devices, guards).
      Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Intro­duc­tion.
      ISO Guide 78, 3.2.2. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion, Gene­va. 2012.
  • type-C stan­dard — Machine safe­ty stan­dard. Stan­dard deal­ing with detailed safe­ty require­ments for a par­tic­u­lar machine or group of machines.Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Intro­duc­tion.Note 2 to entry: The term “group of machines” means machines hav­ing a sim­i­lar intend­ed use and sim­i­lar haz­ards, haz­ardous sit­u­a­tions or haz­ardous events.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.3. ISO Inter­na­tion­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Stan­dard­iza­tion, Gene­va. 2012.

Stop­ping time (time for haz­ard elim­i­na­tion) — The peri­od between the point at which the inter­lock­ing device ini­ti­ates the stop com­mand and the point at which the risk from haz­ardous machine func­tions has passed EN 1088–1996, §3.8

Squeak — A high-pitched tran­sient sound, sim­i­lar to rub­bing fin­gers against a clean win­dow. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Squeal — A long-dura­tion, high-pitched noise. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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T

Tap — A light, rhyth­mic or inter­mit­tent ham­mer­ing sound, sim­i­lar to tap­ping a pen­cil on a table edge. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

tagout — The place­ment of a tagout device on an ener­gy iso­lat­ing device, in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, to indi­cate that the ener­gy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­at­ed until the tagout device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

tagout device

  1. A promi­nent warn­ing means such as a tag and a means of attach­ment, which can be secure­ly fas­tened to an ener­gy iso­lat­ing device to indi­cate that the ener­gy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­at­ed until the tagout device is removed. ANSI Z244.1–2003, 2.20.1
  2. A promi­nent warn­ing device, such as a tag and a means of attach­ment, which can be secure­ly fas­tened to an ener­gy iso­lat­ing device in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, to indi­cate that the ener­gy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­at­ed until the tagout device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

Thump — A dull beat caused by 2 items strik­ing togeth­er. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Tick — A rhyth­mic tap, sim­i­lar to a clock noise. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Tip-In Moan — A light moan­ing noise heard dur­ing light vehi­cle accel­er­a­tion, usu­al­ly between 40–100 km/h (25–65 mph). Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

tol­er­a­ble risk — risk which is accept­ed in a giv­en con­text based on the cur­rent val­ues of soci­ety ISO Guide 51:99

MS101 Note: In our opin­ion, tol­er­a­ble risk bears a require­ment for con­tin­u­ous mon­i­tor­ing and improve­ment that is com­plete­ly missed in this def­i­n­i­tion. Here is an alter­nate def­i­n­i­tion for tol­er­a­ble risk that bet­ter encom­pass­es this require­ment: tol­er­a­ble risk — risk that may be endured in a giv­en con­text based on cur­rent infor­ma­tion and val­ues of soci­ety, sub­ject to con­tin­u­ous mon­i­tor­ing and reduc­tion.

[see Tol­er­a­ble] See ‘accept­able risk’.

Tran­sient — A noise or vibra­tion that is momen­tary, a short dura­tion. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Trap­ping Space — The space where it would be pos­si­ble for any part of an individual’s body to be trapped between the cut­ter or its mount­ing and the work­piece or fix­ture, result­ing in injury. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.26

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U

unex­pect­ed start-up or unin­tend­ed start-up — any start-up which, because of its unex­pect­ed nature, gen­er­ates a risk to per­sons

NOTE 1: This can be caused by, for exam­ple:

    • a start com­mand which is the result of a fail­ure in, or an exter­nal influ­ence on, the con­trol sys­tem;
    • a start com­mand gen­er­at­ed by inop­por­tune action on a start con­trol or oth­er parts of the machine such as a sen­sor or a pow­er con­trol ele­ment;
    • restora­tion of the pow­er sup­ply after an inter­rup­tion;
    • external/internal influ­ences (grav­i­ty, wind, self-igni­tion in inter­nal com­bus­tion engines, etc.) on parts of the machine.

NOTE 2: Machine start-up dur­ing nor­mal sequence of an auto­mat­ic cycle is not unin­tend­ed, but can be con­sid­ered as being unex­pect­ed from the point of view of the oper­a­tor, Pre­ven­tion of acci­dents in this case involves the use of safe­guard­ing mea­sures (see 6.3). NOTE 3 Adapt­ed from ISO 14118:2000, def­i­n­i­tion 3.2. ISO 12100:2010

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V

Vibra­tion

  • Any motion, shak­ing or trem­bling, that can be felt or seen when an object moves back and forth or up and down. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny
  • The act of vibrat­ing, or the state of being vibrat­ed, or in vibra­to­ry motion; quick motion to and fro; oscil­la­tion, as of a pen­du­lum or musi­cal string. 1913 Webster’s Dic­tio­nary
  • (Physics) A lim­it­ed rec­i­p­ro­cat­ing motion of a par­ti­cle of an elas­tic body or medi­um in alter­nate­ly oppo­site direc­tions from its posi­tion of equi­lib­ri­um, when that equi­lib­ri­um has been dis­turbed, as when a stretched cord or oth­er body pro­duces musi­cal notes, or par­ti­cles of air trans­mit sounds to the ear. The path of the par­ti­cle may be in a straight line, in a cir­cu­lar arc, or in any curve whatever.Note: Vibra­tion and oscil­la­tion are both used, in mechan­ics, of the swing­ing, or ris­ing and falling, motion of a sus­pend­ed or bal­anced body; the lat­ter term more appro­pri­ate­ly, as sig­ni­fy­ing such motion pro­duced by grav­i­ty, and of any degree of slow­ness, while the for­mer applies espe­cial­ly to the quick, short motion to and fro which results from elas­tic­i­ty, or the action of mol­e­c­u­lar forces among the par­ti­cles of a body when dis­turbed from their posi­tion of rest, as in a spring. 1913 Webster’s Dic­tio­nary
  • (n) The act of vibrat­ing Word­net 3.0
  • (physics) a reg­u­lar peri­od­ic vari­a­tion in val­ue about a mean. Word­net 3.0

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W

Whine — A con­stant, high-pitched noise. Also described as a screech. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Whis­tle — High-pitched noise with a very nar­row fre­quen­cy band. Exam­ples of whis­tle nois­es are a tur­bocharg­er or air flow around an anten­na. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

Wind Noise — Any noise caused by air move­ment in, out or around the vehi­cle. Ford Motor Com­pa­ny

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X

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Y

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Z

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