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MS101 Glossary

 Old book, open, with eyeglasses laying on topWe put this glos­sary together to pro­vide a quick and easy source for use­ful machin­ery safety related def­i­n­i­tions. They have been col­lected from a vari­ety of sources, mostly stan­dards, but a few web sites and dic­tio­nar­ies as well. We have cited the orig­i­nal doc­u­ment from which I drew the def­i­n­i­tion, if I know the source. If you feel the source is incor­rect, of if a term is incor­rectly ref­er­enced, please let us know!

Some def­i­n­i­tions are included just because I thought they were inter­est­ing — many of those from the Ford Motor Company fall into that group, but could be use­ful in describ­ing machin­ery and hazards.

Want to add some­thing that’s miss­ing? Send it to me, includ­ing the full source cita­tion and I’ll gladly add it!

Additional Official Sources

There are two addi­tional sources for def­i­n­i­tions, stan­dard graph­ics and other infor­ma­tion that you may not know about:

  1. ISO Online Browsing Platform - The Online Browsing Platform is a pub­licly avail­able ser­vice from ISO that per­mits users to search ISO Standards, Collections, Graphical Symbols, Terms and Definitions, and Country Codes at no charge.
  2. IEC Electropedia — Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary, or IEC 60050, this online ser­vice gives users direct access to the most cur­rent terms and def­i­n­i­tions in the elec­trotech­ni­cal sector.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

accept­able risk — risk that may be read­ily allowed by affected per­sons, based on an based on an informed deci­sion Note 1: Accepted risks may be sub­ject to peri­odic mon­i­tor­ing and reduc­tion, par­tic­u­larly when the val­ues of soci­ety change, or when new infor­ma­tion regard­ing the risk becomes avail­able, thus mak­ing pre­vi­ously accept­able risks unac­cept­able. Note 2: Where resid­ual risk is thought to be extremely low, risks are often accepted based on a pre­sump­tion of safety rather than an informed deci­sion about a par­tic­u­lar risk. MS101 Note: This def­i­n­i­tion is a pro­posed def­i­n­i­tion that has not been offi­cially pub­lished, thus the lack of cita­tion. :-)

See ‘tol­er­a­ble risk’

Accessible

  1. (as applied to equip­ment) — Admitting close approach; not guarded by locked doors, ele­va­tion, or other effec­tive means.
  2. (as applied to wiring meth­ods) — Capable of being removed or exposed with­out dam­ag­ing the build­ing struc­ture or fin­ish or not per­ma­nently closed in by the struc­ture or fin­ish of the building.
  3. Readily (Readily Accessible) — Capable of being reached quickly for oper­a­tion, renewal, or inspec­tions with­out requir­ing those to whom ready access is req­ui­site to actions such as to use tools, to climb over or remove obsta­cles, or to resort to portable lad­ders, and so forth.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014

Access time (time for access to a dan­ger zone) — The time taken to access the haz­ardous machine parts after ini­ti­a­tion of the stop com­mand by the inter­lock­ing device, as cal­cu­lated on the basis of an approach speed the value of which may be cho­sen, for each par­tic­u­lar case, tak­ing into account the para­me­ters given in prEN 999 ‘Safety of machin­ery — The posi­tion­ing of pro­tec­tive equip­ment in respect of approach speeds of parts of the human body’. EN 1088, §3.9

acknowl­edged rule of tech­nol­ogy — tech­ni­cal pro­vi­sion acknowl­edged by a major­ity of rep­re­sen­ta­tive experts as reflect­ing the state of the art

NOTE A nor­ma­tive doc­u­ment on a tech­ni­cal sub­ject, if pre­pared with the coöper­a­tion of con­cerned inter­ests by con­sul­ta­tion and con­sen­sus pro­ce­dures, is pre­sumed to con­sti­tute an acknowl­edged rule of tech­nol­ogy at the time of its approval.

ISO Guide 2:2004, §1.5

See ‘State of the Art’

Actuator — sep­a­rate part of an inter­lock­ing device which trans­mits the state of the guard (closed or not closed) to the actu­at­ing sys­tem NOTE 1 A guard mounted cam, a key, a shaped tongue, a reflec­tor, a mag­net, an RFID tag are exam­ples of actu­a­tors. NOTE 2 See also Annex A to E. NOTE 3 See exam­ples of actu­a­tors in Figure 2. ISO 14119, §3.12 [See also Coded Actuator]

Actuating System — part of the inter­lock­ing device which trans­mits the posi­tion of the actu­a­tor and changes the state of the out­put sys­tem NOTE 1 A roller plunger, a cam link­age sys­tem, an opti­cal, induc­tive or capac­i­tive sen­sor are exam­ples of an actu­at­ing sys­tem. NOTE 2 See exam­ples of actu­at­ing sys­tems in Figure 2. ISO 14119, §3.14

Adequate risk reduc­tion — the achieve­ment of a risk level unlikely to give rise to a sit­u­a­tion that could result in harm to any per­son. See ‘accept­able risk’.

Adjustable bar­rier guard — a fixed guard that is adjustable as a whole or that incor­po­rates adjustable parts. The adjust­ment to the guard remains fixed dur­ing oper­a­tion. CSA Z432-​​04, §3 [See Guard]

Alive — See Live

ALARP — “As Low As Reason­ably Prac­ti­ca­ble”. The ALARP Principle comes from UK OHS law:

The main tests that are applied in reg­u­lat­ing indus­trial risks are very sim­i­lar to those we apply in day to day life. They involve determining:

  1. whether a given risk is so great or the out­come so unac­cept­able that it must be refused alto­gether; or
  2. whether the risk is, or has been made, so small that no fur­ther pre­cau­tion is nec­es­sary; or
  3. if a risk falls between these two states, that it has been reduced to the low­est level prac­ti­ca­ble, bear­ing in mind the ben­e­fits flow­ing from its accep­tance and tak­ing into account the costs of any fur­ther reduc­tion. The injunc­tion laid down in safety law is that any risk must be reduced so far as rea­son­ably prac­ti­ca­ble, or to a level which is ‘as low as rea­son­ably prac­ti­ca­ble’ (ALARP principle).”

The Tolerability of Risk from Nuclear Power Stations, UK Health and Safety Executive, HMSO OPSI, London, 1992

Amplitude — The quan­tity or amount of energy pro­duced by a vibrat­ing com­po­nent (G-​​force). An extreme vibra­tion has a high ampli­tude. A mild vibra­tion has a low ampli­tude. [See Intensity] Ford Motor Company

At height — access posi­tions located 2.5 m above the sur­round­ing sur­face or land­ing. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Approved — Acceptable to the author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014

Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) — An orga­ni­za­tion, office, or indi­vid­ual respon­si­ble for enforc­ing the require­ments of a code or stan­dard, or for approv­ing equip­ment, mate­ri­als, an instal­la­tion, or a procedure.

Informational Note: The phrase “author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion,” or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA doc­u­ments in a broad man­ner, since juris­dic­tions and approval agen­cies vary, as do their respon­si­bil­i­ties. Where pub­lic safety is pri­mary, the author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion may be a fed­eral, state, local, or other regional depart­ment or indi­vid­ual such as a fire chief; fire mar­shal; chief of a fire pre­ven­tion bureau, labor depart­ment, or health depart­ment; build­ing offi­cial; elec­tri­cal inspec­tor; or oth­ers hav­ing statu­tory author­ity. For insur­ance pur­poses, an insur­ance inspec­tion depart­ment, rat­ing bureau, or other insur­ance com­pany rep­re­sen­ta­tive may be the author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion. In many cir­cum­stances, the prop­erty owner or his or her des­ig­nated agent assumes the role of the author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion; at gov­ern­ment instal­la­tions, the com­mand­ing offi­cer or depart­men­tal offi­cial may be the author­ity hav­ing jurisdiction.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014

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B

Barrier (fixed dis­tance) guard — a fixed guard that does not com­pletely enclose the haz­ard but that reduces access by virtue of its phys­i­cal dimen­sions and its dis­tance from the haz­ard. CSA Z432-​​04, §3 [See Guard]

Boom — Low fre­quency or low pitched noise often accom­pa­nied by a vibra­tion. [Also refer to Drumming.] Ford Motor Company

Buffet /​ Buffeting — Strong noise fluc­tu­a­tions caused by gust­ing winds. An exam­ple would be wind gusts against the side glass. Ford Motor Company

Buzz — A low-​​pitched sound like that from a bee. Often a metal­lic or hard plas­tic hum­ming sound. Also describes a high-​​frequency vibra­tion. Vibration feels sim­i­lar to an elec­tric razor. Ford Motor Company

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C

Certification

  1. Product cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is the process of eval­u­at­ing a (usu­ally elec­tri­cal) prod­uct against the require­ments of a Certification Standard, using stan­dard­ized safety test meth­ods in an accred­ited Certification Laboratory. This process is typ­i­cally called a “cer­ti­fi­ca­tion scheme” in the prod­uct cer­ti­fi­ca­tion indus­try. At the end of the process, prod­ucts that suc­cess­fully meet the require­ments are per­mit­ted to be marked with the Certification Body’s trade­mark under license. Ongoing fac­tory audits are required to ensure that the prod­ucts pro­duced do not vary from the sam­ples sub­mit­ted for test­ing. Product Certification is typ­i­cally used for series pro­duc­tion of 200 or more units annu­ally. See Product Certification. Wikipedia, [online].For pro­duc­tion vol­umes below 200 units per year, Field Evaluation is nor­mally the most appro­pri­ate approach to com­pli­ance.
  2. Third-​​party attes­ta­tion related to prod­ucts, processes, sys­tems or per­sons
    Note 1 to entry: Certification of a man­age­ment sys­tem is some­times also called reg­is­tra­tion.
    Note 2 to entry: Certification is applic­a­ble to all objects of con­for­mity assess­ment except for con­for­mity assess­ment bod­ies them­selves, to which accred­i­ta­tion is applicable.

ISO/​IEC 17000:2004, 5.5

IEC Electropedia

Chatter — A pro­nounced series of rapidly repeat­ing rat­tling or click­ing sounds. Ford Motor Company

Chirp — A short-​​duration, high-​​pitched noise asso­ci­ated with a slip­ping drive belt.Ford Motor Company

Chuckle— A rep­e­ti­tious, low-​​pitched sound. A loud chuckle is usu­ally described as a knock.Ford Motor Company

Click — A sharp, brief, non-​​resonant sound, sim­i­lar to actu­at­ing a ball point pen. Ford Motor Company

Clonk — A hydraulic knock­ing sound. Sound occurs with air pock­ets in a hydraulic sys­tem. Also described as ham­mer­ing. Ford Motor Company

Clunk — A heavy or dull, short-​​duration, low-​​frequency sound. Occurs mostly on a vehi­cle that is accel­er­at­ing or decel­er­at­ing abruptly. Also described as a thunk. Ford Motor Company

Code of prac­tice — doc­u­ment that rec­om­mends prac­tices or pro­ce­dures for the design, man­u­fac­ture, instal­la­tion, main­te­nance or uti­liza­tion of equip­ment, struc­tures or products

NOTE A code of prac­tice may be a stan­dard, a part of a stan­dard or inde­pen­dent of a stan­dard. ISO Guide 2:2003, §3.5

Coded Actuator— actu­a­tor which is spe­cially designed (e. g. by shape) to actu­ate a cer­tain posi­tion switch:

  1. low level coded actu­a­tor — coded actu­a­tor for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be 1 to 9;
  2. medium level coded actu­a­tor — coded actu­a­tor for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be 10 to ?1 000;
  3. high level coded actu­a­tor — coded actu­a­tor for which the num­ber of code ver­sions avail­able need to be > 1 000.

ISO 14119, §3.13 [See also Actuator]

Commissioning 

  1. pro­ce­dures prior, or related, to hand­ing over a prod­uct ready for putting into ser­vice, includ­ing final accep­tance test­ing; hand­ing over of draw­ings, instruc­tions for oper­a­tion, main­te­nance and repair; if nec­es­sary, instruct­ing per­son­nel IEC 62079:2001, 3.2
  2. pro­ce­dure by which a sys­tem is for­mally accepted by the pur­chaser. ISO 4414:2010, 3.1
  3. pro­ce­dures prior, or related , to the hand­ing over of a prod­uct ready for putting into service, including final accep­tance test­ing, the hand­ing over of all doc­u­men­ta­tion rel­e­vant to the use of the prod­uct and, if nec­es­sary, instruct­ing per­son­nel IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.3

Common cause fail­ures — fail­ures of dif­fer­ent items, result­ing from a sin­gle event, where these fail­ures are not con­se­quences of each other. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Common mode fail­ures — fail­ures of items char­ac­ter­ized by the same fault mode. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Common sense — Can be expressed as a func­tion of four elements:

com­mon sense = knowl­edge + expe­ri­ence + atten­tion + exposure

Where any ele­ment is miss­ing or insuf­fi­cient, there can be no com­mon sense.

 Wynand Serfontaine and oth­ers on the LinkedIN Safety Engineering Network

MS101 NOTE: It is impor­tant to rec­og­nize that the pre­ced­ing def­i­n­i­tion will result in a dif­fer­ent out­come for every indi­vid­ual to whom it is applied, since every indi­vid­ual has dif­fer­ent knowl­edge, expe­ri­ence, atten­tion (focus) and expo­sure to the spe­cific haz­ard being con­sid­ered. This illus­trates the prob­lem with try­ing to use the ‘common-​​sense’ approach in risk con­trol. As Mark Twain once said, “The prob­lem with com­mon sense is that it’s not too common.”

Alternate Definition - Common sense is that unique body of knowl­edge and expe­ri­ence related to haz­ards com­monly expe­ri­enced in day-​​to-​​day life by an indi­vid­ual. D. Nix, 2005

Complementary pro­tec­tive mea­sures— Protective mea­sures that are nei­ther inher­ently safe design mea­sures, nor safe­guard­ing (imple­men­ta­tion of guards and/​or pro­tec­tive devices), nor infor­ma­tion for use may have to be imple­mented as required by the intended use and the rea­son­ably fore­see­able mis­use of the machine. Such mea­sures shall include, but not be lim­ited to,

  1. emer­gency stop;
  2. means of res­cue of trapped per­sons; and
  3. means of energy iso­la­tion and dissipation.

CSA Z432-​​04 (R2009), §6.2.3.5.3

See also “Protective Measure

See also ISO 12100:2010, §6.3.5

Compliance – “Compliance” is used to describe the action of doing what is required (e. g. an orga­ni­za­tion “com­plies” by mak­ing some­thing or by ful­fill­ing a reg­u­la­tory require­ment). ISO/​IEC 17000:2004, §3 [See Conformity]

com­po­nent – prod­uct used as a con­stituent in an assem­bled prod­uct, sys­tem or plant [SOURCE: IEC 81346–1 :2009, def­i­n­i­tion 3.7] IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.4

Conductor

  1. Mechanical. The com­po­nents that carry (trans­mit) a vibra­tion fre­quency from the orig­i­na­tor to the reac­tor. Ford Motor Company
  2. Bare. A con­duc­tor hav­ing no cov­er­ing or elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion what­so­ever. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  3. Covered. A con­duc­tor encased within mate­r­ial of com­po­si­tion or thick­ness that is not rec­og­nized by this Code as elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  4. Insulated. A con­duc­tor encased within mate­r­ial of com­po­si­tion and thick­ness that is rec­og­nized by this Code as elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014

con­for­mity — ful­fill­ment of spec­i­fied require­ments
Note 1 to entry: The term “con­for­mance” is syn­ony­mous but dep­re­cated.
IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.5

con­se­quence

  1. out­come of an event (3.5.1.3) affect­ing objec­tives
    NOTE 1 An event can lead to a range of con­se­quences.
    NOTE 2 A con­se­quence can be cer­tain or uncer­tain and can have pos­i­tive or neg­a­tive effects on objec­tives.
    NOTE 3 Consequences can be expressed qual­i­ta­tively or quan­ti­ta­tively.
    NOTE 4 Initial con­se­quences can esca­late through knock-​​on effects.
    Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.3. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009.
  2. out­come of an occur­rence of a par­tic­u­lar set of cir­cum­stances
    Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one con­se­quence from one event. IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.6

[See also “severity”]

Conformity – “Conformity” means ful­fill­ment of a require­ment. Specified require­ments may be stated in nor­ma­tive doc­u­ments as reg­u­la­tions, stan­dards and tech­ni­cal spec­i­fi­ca­tions. ISO/​IEC 17000:2004, §3

Control Circuit

  1. The cir­cuit of a con­trol appa­ra­tus or sys­tem that car­ries the elec­tric sig­nals direct­ing the per­for­mance of the con­troller but does not carry the main power cur­rent. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014
  2. (of a machine) cir­cuit used for the con­trol, includ­ing mon­i­tor­ing, of a machine and the elec­tri­cal equip­ment. Safety of machinery—Electrical equip­ment of machines—Part 1: General Requirements, §3.8. IEC 60204–1. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Geneva. 2006.

Control Guard – See “Interlocking guard with a start func­tion

Cracks — A mid-​​frequency sound, related to squeak. Sound varies with tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions. Ford Motor Company

Creak — A metal­lic squeak. Ford Motor Company

Critical safety func­tion — a safety func­tion of a machine whose fail­ure can result in an imme­di­ate increase of risk. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Current-​​carrying — See “Live

Cycle — The process of a vibrat­ing com­po­nent going through a com­plete range of motion and return­ing to the start­ing point. [See Frequency]  Ford Motor Company

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D

Danger zone — the zone around the machine (front, back, sides, top, and bot­tom) where a haz­ard is cre­ated by the motion of the machine com­po­nents. CSA Z432-​​04, §3 See ‘Hazard Zone’.

Deadman or Dead Man — Obsolete term used to refer to an Enabling Device. Use of the term ‘dead­man’ should be avoided. See ‘Enabling Device

Decibel (dB)

  • A unit of mea­sure­ment, refer­ring to sound pres­sure level, abbre­vi­ated dB. Ford Motor Company
  • a unit used to mea­sure the inten­sity of a sound or the power level of an elec­tri­cal sig­nal by com­par­ing it with a given level on a log­a­rith­mic scale. New Oxford American Dictionary
  • a log­a­rith­mic unit of sound inten­sity; 10 times the log­a­rithm of the ratio of the sound inten­sity to some ref­er­ence inten­sity. Wordnet 3.0 2006

defeat – action that makes inter­lock­ing devices inop­er­a­tive or bypasses them with the result that a machine is used in a man­ner not intended by the designer or with­out the nec­es­sary safety mea­sures. ISO 14119

defeat in a rea­son­ably fore­see­able man­ner– defeat of an inter­lock­ing device either man­u­ally or by using read­ily avail­able objects.

NOTE 1 This def­i­n­i­tion includes the removal of switches or actu­a­tors using tools that are needed for the intended use of the machine or that are read­ily avail­able (screw dri­vers, wrenches, hexa­gon keys, pliers).

NOTE 2 Readily avail­able objects for sub­sti­tute actu­a­tion can be:

  • screws, nee­dles, sheet-​​metal pieces;
  • objects in daily use such as keys, coins, adhe­sive tape, string and wire;
  • spare keys for the trapped-​​key inter­lock­ing devices;
  • spare actu­a­tors.

ISO 14119

direct con­tact — elec­tric con­tact of per­sons or ani­mals with live parts

[IEC 60050–195: 1998, 195–06-03] EN 60519–1:2006, 3.1

direct drive — a con­nec­tion between actu­a­tor and con­tact ele­ment that excludes any pre-​​travel of the actu­a­tor IEC 60947−5−1, Ed. 3, 2009 §2.4.4.3

[Also see “Positive Drive”]

direct open­ing action (of a con­tact ele­ment) — achieve­ment of con­tact sep­a­ra­tion as the direct result of a spec­i­fied move­ment of the switch actu­a­tor through non-​​resilient mem­bers (for exam­ple not depen­dent upon springs) IEC 60947−5−1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.2
[See also “Direct Drive” “Force Guided”, “Mechanically Linked”, “Positively Guided”, “Positive Drive”]

direct open­ing travel — travel from the begin­ning of actu­a­tion of the actu­a­tor and the posi­tion when the direct open­ing action of the open­ing con­tacts is com­pleted  IEC 60947−5−1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.3

direct open­ing force (or moment) — actu­a­tion force, or actu­at­ing moment for a rotary con­trol switch, applied to the actu­a­tor for the direct open­ing action IEC 60947−5−1, Ed. 3, 2009 § K.2.4

Disconnecting Means — A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nected from their source of sup­ply. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Drone — A low-​​frequency, steady sound, like a freezer com­pres­sor. Also described as a moan. Ford Motor Company

Drumming — A cycling, low-​​frequency, rhyth­mic noise often accom­pa­nied by a sen­sa­tion of pres­sure on the ear drums. Also described as a low rum­ble, boom or rolling thun­der. Ford Motor Company

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E

emer­gency con­trol — con­trol func­tion that brings a sys­tem to a safe con­di­tion ISO 4414:2010, 3.2

Emergency sit­u­a­tion — an imme­di­ately haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion that needs to be ended or averted quickly in order to pre­vent injury or dam­age. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Emergency stop 

  1. A func­tion that is intended to avert harm or to reduce exist­ing haz­ards to per­sons, machin­ery, or work in progress. CSA Z432-​​04, §3.
  2. The oper­a­tion of a cir­cuit that over­rides all other robot con­trols, removes drive power, causes all mov­ing parts to stop, and removes power from other haz­ardous func­tions present in the safe­guarded space but does not cause addi­tional haz­ards. ANSI RIA 15.06−99, §3.11
  3. The oper­a­tion of a cir­cuit that over­rides all other robot con­trols, removes drive power, causes all mov­ing parts to stop, and removes power from other haz­ardous func­tions present in the safe­guarded space but does not cause addi­tional haz­ards. CSA Z434-​​03, §3.

Emergency stop but­ton — A red mushroom-​​headed but­ton that, when acti­vated, will imme­di­ately start the emer­gency stop sequence. CSA Z432-​​04, §3.

Emergency stop device — Manually actu­ated con­trol device used to ini­ti­ate an emer­gency stop func­tion. ISO 13850 2006, §3.2

Emergency Switching Off — An emer­gency oper­a­tion intended to switch off the sup­ply of the elec­tri­cal energy to all or part of an instal­la­tion. NFPA 79–07, §3.3.37.

Emergency switch­ing off device — Manually actu­ated con­trol device used to switch off the sup­ply of elec­tri­cal energy to all or a part of an instal­la­tion where a risk of elec­tric shock or another risk of elec­tri­cal ori­gin is involved. IEC 60204–1, 2005, §3.18

Enabling device

  1. a device that is designed to ini­ti­ate a machine action or allow the flow of energy to a machine. CSA Z432-​​04, §3
  2. addi­tional man­u­ally oper­ated device used in con­junc­tion with a start con­trol and which, when con­tin­u­ously actu­ated, allows a machine to func­tion ISO 12100:2010 §3.28.2
  3. A man­u­ally oper­ated device which when con­tin­u­ously acti­vated, per­mits motion. ANSI RIA R15.06–1999 §3.12

See ‘dead­man con­trol’.

Energy-​​isolating device

  1. a mechan­i­cal device that phys­i­cally pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of energy, includ­ing but not lim­ited to the fol­low­ing: a man­u­ally oper­ated elec­tri­cal cir­cuit breaker; a dis­con­nect switch; a man­u­ally oper­ated switch by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nected from all ungrounded sup­ply con­duc­tors; a line valve; a block; and other devices used to block or iso­late energy (push-​​button selec­tor switches and other control-​​type devices are not energy-​​isolating devices). CSA Z460 2005
  2. A mechan­i­cal device that phys­i­cally pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of energy, includ­ing but not lim­ited to the fol­low­ing: a man­u­ally oper­ated elec­tri­cal cir­cuit breaker, a dis­con­nect switch, a man­u­ally oper­ated switch by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nected from all ungrounded sup­ply con­duc­tors and, in addi­tion, no pole can be oper­ated inde­pen­dently; a line valve; a block; and any sim­i­lar device used to block or iso­late energy. ANSI Z244.1–2003
  3. A device that phys­i­cally pre­vents the trans­mis­sion or release of energy, includ­ing but not lim­ited to the fol­low­ing: A man­u­ally oper­ated elec­tri­cal cir­cuit breaker; a dis­con­nect switch; a man­u­ally oper­ated switch by which the con­duc­tors of a cir­cuit can be dis­con­nected from all ungrounded sup­ply con­duc­tors, and, in addi­tion, no pole can be oper­ated inde­pen­dently; a line valve; a block; and any sim­i­lar device used to block or iso­late energy. Push but­tons, selec­tor switches and other con­trol cir­cuit type devices are not energy iso­lat­ing devices. 29 CFR 1901.147

Energy source — Any source of elec­tri­cal, mechan­i­cal, hydraulic, pneu­matic, chem­i­cal, ther­mal, or other energy. 29 CFR 1910.147

See also “Hazardous Energy”

equipo­ten­tial bond­ing — pro­vi­sion of elec­tric con­nec­tions between con­duc­tive parts, intended to put them at a sub­stan­tially equal poten­tial
[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195−01−10, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.14

equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem (EBS)interconnection of con­duc­tive parts pro­vid­ing equipo­ten­tial bond­ing between those parts
NOTE If an equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem is earthed, it forms part of an earth­ing arrange­ment.
[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–02-22], en60519-1:2011. 3.15

exposed

  1. (con­duc­tive part) con­duc­tive part of elec­tri­cal equip­ment, which can be touched and which is not live in nor­mal oper­a­tion, but which can become live under fault con­di­tions
    [IEC 60050–826:2004, 826−12−10, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.16
  2. (as applied to live parts) Capable of being inad­ver­tently touched or approached nearer than a safe dis­tance by a per­son.
    Informational Note: This term applies to parts that are not suit­ably guarded, iso­lated, or insu­lated. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.
  3. (as applied to wiring meth­ods) On or attached to the sur­face or behind pan­els designed to allow access. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

extra­ne­ous con­duc­tive part — con­duc­tive part not form­ing part of the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion and liable to intro­duce an elec­tric poten­tial, gen­er­ally the elec­tric poten­tial of a local earth
[IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–12-11], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.17

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F

Field Evaluation (FE) — Field Evaluation is a ser­vice pro­vided by accred­ited inspec­tion bod­ies to bridge the gap between uncer­ti­fied equip­ment and a code-​​compliant instal­la­tion accept­able to the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). Field eval­u­a­tion is used in North America to per­mit small vol­ume (1−200 units per year) pro­duc­tion of elec­tri­cal prod­ucts to be eval­u­ated by qual­i­fied inspec­tors and “field labelled” to show com­pli­ance with the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) in the US, or the Canadian Electrical Code (CSA C22.1) in Canada. Inspection is con­ducted by an accred­ited Inspection Body. In the US, these are known as Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTL), and in Canada as Accredited Inspection Bodies.

FIT (unit)Failure in Time — 1 FIT = 1 x 10–9 failures/​h. The FIT unit finds its ori­gin in reli­a­bil­ity engi­neer­ing for the semi­con­duc­tor indus­try. In datasheets and cer­tifi­cates for SIL rated equip­ment (mainly sen­sors, actu­a­tors and the like intended for use in the process indus­try accord­ing to IEC 61511) the unit FIT is com­monly used for pre­sent­ing fail­ure rate data (lambda val­ues). The FIT unit was devel­oped to ease writ­ing and read­ing the infor­ma­tion. Most instru­ments specif­i­cally designed for process indus­try SIL appli­ca­tions have fail­ure rates in the range of 1 x 10–9/​h to 3 x 10–6/​h. When expressed using FIT these val­ues are writ­ten as 10 to 3000 FIT.  This is eas­ier to read, and eas­ier to com­pare datasheets for instru­ments, etc. Bert Brouwers, LinkedIn​.com, IEC 62061 and ISO 13849 machin­ery func­tional safety group, accessed 28-​​Sep-​​2011

Fixed guard — a guard kept in place (i.e., closed or attached to a fixed sur­face) either per­ma­nently (e.g., by weld­ing) or by means of fas­ten­ers (screws, nuts, etc.), mak­ing removal or open­ing impos­si­ble with­out using tools. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

[See also “Guard”]

Flutter — Mid to high inter­mit­tent sound due to air flow. Similar to a flag flap­ping in the wind. Ford Motor Company

Force Guided, forced con­tacts — dep­re­cated. See “Mechanically Linked”.

Alternate Definition - Force Guided Relays And Mirror Contact Relays -
Force-​​guided (or positively-​​guided) relays have con­tacts that are mechan­i­cally inter­locked such that two con­tacts on the relays will not con­tra­dict each other, even in the event that the relay welds. Force-​​guided relays have con­tacts that are force-​​guided/​mechanically linked con­form­ing to IEC60947-1–1 as required for use in safety-​​related con­trol systems.

The mir­ror con­tact relays con­form to EN 60947−4−1 by using a com­bi­na­tion of the relay block and the aux­il­iary con­tact block.
“Force Guided Relays And Mirror Contact Relays”, [online]. OMRON STI. Accessed: 6-​​Jun-​​2013. Available: http://​www​.sti​.com/​f​o​r​c​e​-​g​u​i​d​e​d​-​r​e​l​a​ys/.

Frequency — The rate at which a cycle occurs within a given time. [See CycleFord Motor Company

fre­quency — num­ber of events (3.5.1.3) or out­comes per defined unit of time

NOTE Frequency can be applied to past events (3.5.1.3) or to poten­tial future events, where it can be used as a mea­sure of like­li­hood (3.6.1.1) /​ prob­a­bil­ity (3.6.1.3).

Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.5. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009.

Functional Safety— Functional safety is part of the over­all safety that depends on a sys­tem or equip­ment oper­at­ing cor­rectly in response to its inputs. The term “safety-​​related” is used to describe sys­tems that are required to per­form a spe­cific func­tion or func­tions to ensure risks are kept at an accepted level. Such func­tions are, by def­i­n­i­tion, safety func­tions. Two types of require­ments are nec­es­sary to achieve func­tional safety:

  • safety func­tion require­ments (what the func­tion does;) and
  • safety integrity require­ments (the like­li­hood of a safety func­tion being per­formed satisfactorily).

The safety func­tion require­ments are derived from the haz­ard analy­sis and the safety integrity require­ments are derived from a risk assess­ment. The higher the level of safety integrity, the lower the like­li­hood of dan­ger­ous fail­ure. “Functional safety of electrical/​electronic/​programmable elec­tronic safety-​​related sys­tems — Part 0: Functional safety and IEC 61508”, IEC/​TR 61508–0 Edition 1, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 2005

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G

G-​​force — The addi­tional load or weight pro­duced in an object dur­ing accel­er­a­tion. When mea­sur­ing the level or ampli­tude of a vibra­tion with­out sound, the unit G is added to asso­ciate the force of the vibra­tion to grav­ity. This is sim­i­lar to mea­sur­ing the weight of an object, which is also a func­tion of grav­ity. Ford Motor Company

Gravelly Feel — A grind­ing or growl in a com­po­nent, sim­i­lar to the feel expe­ri­enced when dri­ving on gravel. Ford Motor Company Grind — An abra­sive sound, sim­i­lar to using a grind­ing wheel, or rub­bing sand paper against wood. Ford Motor Company

Ground — The earth. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

See also International elec­trotech­ni­cal vocab­u­lary (IEV). IEC 60050, [online]. International Electrotechnical Commisssion (IEC). Geneva.

Ground Fault — An unin­ten­tional, elec­tri­cally con­duc­tive con­nec­tion between an ungrounded con­duc­tor of an elec­tri­cal cir­cuit and the nor­mally non–current-carrying con­duc­tors, metal­lic enclo­sures, metal­lic race­ways, metal­lic equip­ment, or earth. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounded (Grounding) — Connected (con­nect­ing) to ground or to a con­duc­tive body that extends the ground con­nec­tion. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounded, Solidly — Connected to ground with­out insert­ing any resis­tor or imped­ance device.National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounded Conductor — A sys­tem or cir­cuit con­duc­tor that is inten­tion­ally grounded. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Grounding Conductor, Equipment (EGC) — The con­duc­tive path(s) that pro­vides a ground-​​fault cur­rent path and con­nects nor­mally non–current-carrying metal parts of equip­ment together and to the sys­tem grounded con­duc­tor or to the ground­ing elec­trode con­duc­tor, or both.

Informational Note No. 1: It is rec­og­nized that the equip­ment ground­ing con­duc­tor also per­forms bonding.

Informational Note No. 2: See 250.118 for a list of accept­able equip­ment ground­ing conductors.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Guard —

  1. Cover or equip (a part of a machine) with a device to pro­tect the oper­a­tor. Oxford New American Dictionary
  2. A part of machin­ery specif­i­cally used to pro­vide pro­tec­tion by means of a phys­i­cal bar­rier. Depending on its con­struc­tion, a guard may be called a cas­ing, screen, door, enclos­ing guard, etc. CSA Z432-​​04, §3
  3. A bar­rier that pre­vents expo­sure to an iden­ti­fied haz­ard. E3.22 Sometimes referred to as a “bar­rier guard.” ANSI B11.19 2003, §3.22
  4. Electrical. Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or oth­er­wise pro­tected by means of suit­able cov­ers, cas­ings, barriers, rails, screens, mats, or plat­forms to remove the like­li­hood of approach or con­tact by per­sons or objects to a point of dan­ger. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

[See Adjustable bar­rier guard]

[See Barrier (fixed dis­tance) guard]

[See Fixed guard]

[See Interlocked bar­rier guard]

[See Movable guard]

Guard lock­ing device

  1. a device that is designed to hold the guard closed and locked until the haz­ard has ceased. CSA Z432-​​04, §3
  2. Device intended to lock a guard in the closed posi­tion and linked to the con­trol sys­tem so that:
    • the machine can­not oper­ate trn­til the guard is closed and locked;
    • the guard remains locked until the risk has passed.

    EN 1088:1996, §3.4

  3. device intended to lock a guard in the closed posi­tion and linked to the con­trol sys­tem. ISO 14119

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H

harm — phys­i­cal injury or dam­age to the health of peo­ple, or dam­age to prop­erty or the envi­ron­ment ISO Guide 51:99

harm­ful event — occur­rence in which a haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion results in harm ISO Guide 51:99

haz­ard — poten­tial source of harm

NOTE The term haz­ard can be qual­i­fied in order to define its ori­gin or the nature of the expected harm (e.g. elec­tric shock haz­ard, crush­ing haz­ard, cut­ting haz­ard, toxic haz­ard, fire haz­ard, drown­ing hazard).

ISO Guide 51:99

Hazard groups (ISO)

  • rel­e­vant haz­ard — Hazard which is iden­ti­fied as being present at or asso­ci­ated with the machine.Note 1 to entry: A rel­e­vant haz­ard is iden­ti­fied as the result of one step of the process described in ISO 12100:2010, Clause 5.Note 2 to entry: This term is included as basic ter­mi­nol­ogy for type B– and type C-​​standards.Safety of machin­ery — General prin­ci­ples for design — Risk assess­ment and risk reduc­tion. ISO 12100, 3.7. ISO International Organization for Standardization. Geneva. 2010
  • sig­nif­i­cant haz­ard — Hazard which has been iden­ti­fied as rel­e­vant and which requires spe­cific action by the designer to elim­i­nate or to reduce the risk accord­ing to the risk assess­ment.Note 1 to entry: This term is included as basic ter­mi­nol­ogy for type B– and type C-​​standards.Safety of machin­ery — General prin­ci­ples for design — Risk assess­ment and risk reduc­tion. ISO 12100, 3.8. ISO International Organization for Standardization. Geneva. 2010

Hazardous energy 

  1. Any elec­tri­cal, mechan­i­cal, hydraulic, pneu­matic, chem­i­cal, nuclear, ther­mal, grav­i­ta­tional, or other energy that can harm per­son­nel. CSA Z460 2005
  2. Any elec­tri­cal, mechan­i­cal, hydraulic, pneu­matic, chem­i­cal, nuclear, ther­mal, grav­ity or other energy that could cause injury to per­son­nel. ANSI Z244.1–2003, 2.10

See also “Energy Source

haz­ardous situation

  1. Circumstance in which peo­ple, prop­erty or the envi­ron­ment are exposed to one or more haz­ards ISO Guide 51:99
  2. A set of cir­cum­stances that may give rise to harm to a per­son. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

haz­ardous event — event that can cause harm NOTE A haz­ardous event can occur over a short period of time or over an extended period of time. ISO 12100:2010 §3.9

haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion— cir­cum­stance in which a per­son is exposed to at least one haz­ard NOTE The expo­sure can result in harm imme­di­ately or over a period of time. ISO 12100:2010 §3.10

haz­ard zone— dan­ger zone any space within and/​or around machin­ery in which a per­son can be exposed to a haz­ard ISO 12100:2010, §3.12

Hertz (Hz)

  • A unit of mea­sure used to describe noise and vibra­tion con­cerns expressed in cycles per sec­ond. [See Cycle and FrequencyFord Motor Company
  • the SI unit of fre­quency, equal to one cycle per sec­ond.The New Oxford American Dictionary
  • n. [from the German physi­cist Heinrich Hertz.] A unit of fre­quency equal to one cycle per sec­ond; it is abbre­vi­ated Hz. It is com­monly used to spec­ify the fre­quency of radio waves, and also the clock fre­quen­cies in dig­i­tal com­put­ers. For these appli­ca­tions, kilo­hertz and mega­hertz are the most com­monly used units, derived from hertz. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
  • n. the unit of fre­quency; one hertz has a peri­odic inter­val of one sec­ond. Wordnet 3.0

Hiss — Steady, high-​​frequency noise. Vacuum leak sound. Ford Motor Company

Hoot — A steady, low-​​frequency tone, sounds like blow­ing over a long neck bot­tle. Ford Motor Company

Howl — A mid-​​range fre­quency noise between drum­ming and whine. Also described as a hum. Ford Motor Company

Hum — Mid-​​frequency steady sound, like a small fan motor. Also described as a howl. Ford Motor Company

hier­ar­chy of con­trols — rank­ing of mea­sures taken to pre­vent or reduce haz­ard expo­sure accord­ing to effec­tive­ness. Measures are ordered from the most effec­tive mea­sures that elim­i­nate haz­ards to the least effec­tive mea­sures that may achieve only lim­ited risk reduc­tion. Based on University of Southern Queensland (USQ), Human Resources — Glossary. Accessed 24-​​Feb-​​2011

HMI — See Human-​​Machine Interface.

Hold-​​to-​​run con­trol device — a con­trol device that is designed to per­mit move­ment of machin­ery as long as the con­trol is held in a set posi­tion. Once released, this device auto­mat­i­cally returns the machine to the stop posi­tion. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Human-​​Machine Interface — This is where peo­ple and tech­nol­ogy meet. This people/​ tech­nol­ogy inter­cept can be as sim­ple as the grip on a hand tool or as com­plex as the flight deck of a jumbo jet. ISA | Terminology, accessed 3-​​Mar-​​11.

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I

Industrial Control Panel — An assem­bly of two or more com­po­nents con­sist­ing of one of the following:

  1. power cir­cuit com­po­nents only, such as motor con­trollers, over­load relays, fused dis­con­nect switches, and cir­cuit breakers;
  2. con­trol cir­cuit com­po­nents only, such as push but­tons, pilot lights, selec­tor switches, timers, switches, and con­trol relays;
  3. a com­bi­na­tion of power and con­trol cir­cuit com­po­nents. These com­po­nents, with asso­ci­ated wiring and ter­mi­nals, are mounted on, or con­tained within, an enclo­sure or mounted on a sub panel. The indus­trial con­trol panel does not include the con­trolled equipment.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Industrial robot — an auto­mat­i­cally con­trolled, repro­gram­ma­ble multi-​​purpose manip­u­la­tor pro­gram­ma­ble in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in indus­trial automa­tion appli­ca­tions. CSA Z434-​​03, §3 [See Robot]

Industrial robot sys­tem — equip­ment that includes the robot(s) (hard­ware and soft­ware), con­sist­ing of the manip­u­la­tor power sup­ply and con­trol sys­tem, the end-effector(s), and any other asso­ci­ated machin­ery and equip­ment within the safe­guarded space. CSA Z434-​​03, §3

Ingoing Pinch Point — An ingo­ing pinch point is the point at which any part of a person’s body, such as fin­gers or hand, is likely to be drawn between a rotat­ing machine mem­ber and another rotat­ing or fixed mem­ber and be injured.

E2.11 Ingoing Pinch Point. Examples are two gears in mesh, a belt and pul­ley, or a wheel and par­tial guard. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.11

Also see “Pinch Point

In Sight From (Within Sight From, Within Sight) — Where this Code spec­i­fies that one equip­ment shall be “in sight from,” “within sight from,” or “within sight of,” and so forth, another equip­ment, the spec­i­fied equip­ment is to be vis­i­ble and not more than 15 m (50 ft) dis­tant from the other. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Instruction (for use)

  1. infor­ma­tion by the pro­ducer of a prod­uct for the safe and effi­cient use of the prod­uct IEC 62079:2001, 3.6
  2. infor­ma­tion pro­vided by the sup­plier of a prod­uct to the user, con­tain­ing all the nec­es­sary pro­vi­sions to con­vey the actions to be per­formed for the safe and effi­cient use of the prod­uct
    Note 1 to entry: Instructions for use of a sin­gle prod­uct com­prise one or more doc­u­ments .
    [SOURCE: ISO/​IEC Guide 14:2003, def­i­n­i­tion 2.8, mod­i­fied] IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.19

Instruction mate­r­ial — any applic­a­ble means for the trans­fer of infor­ma­tion con­tain­ing instruc­tions IEC 62079:2001, 3.7

Intended use — exhaus­tive range of func­tions or fore­seen appli­ca­tions defined and designed by the sup­plier of the prod­uct
Note 1 to entry: Functions or appli­ca­tions not listed by the sup­plier are excluded from the intended use of the prod­uct.
Note 2 to entry: Additional or mod­i­fied func­tions or appli­ca­tions result­ing from mod­i­fi­ca­tions not sanc­tioned by the sup­plier of the prod­uct are excluded from the intended use.
IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.20
[see also “rea­son­ably fore­see­able mis­use”]

Intensity — The phys­i­cal qual­ity of sound that relates to the strength of the vibra­tion (mea­sured in deci­bels). The higher the sound’s ampli­tude, the higher the inten­sity and vice versa. [See Amplitude.] Ford Motor Company

Interlocked bar­rier guard — a fixed or mov­able guard attached and inter­locked in such a man­ner that the machine tool will not cycle or will not con­tinue to cycle unless the guard itself or its hinged or mov­able sec­tion encloses the haz­ardous area. CSA Z432-​​04, §3 [See Guard]

Interlocking device (interlock)

  1. Mechanical, elec­tri­cal or other type of device, the pur­pose of which is to pre­vent the oper­a­tion of machine ele­ments under spec­i­fied con­di­tions (gen­er­ally as long as a guard is not closed). EN 1088:96, §3.1
  2. mechan­i­cal, elec­tri­cal or other type of device, the pur­pose of which is to pre­vent the oper­a­tion of haz­ardous machine func­tions under spec­i­fied con­di­tions (gen­er­ally as long as a guard is not closed) ISO 12100:2010, 3.28.1

Interlocking guard

  1. Guard asso­ci­ated with an inter­lock­ing device, so that:
    • the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed;
    • if the guard is opened while the haz­ardous machine func­tions are oper­at­ing, a stop instruc­tion is given;
    • when the guard is closed, the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can oper­ate, but the clo­sure of the guard does not by itself ini­ti­ate their operation.

    NOTE. In English ‘stop sig­nal’ and ‘stop com­mand’ are syn­onyms for ‘stop instruc­tion’. In German, ‘Stop-​​Signal’ and ‘Stop-​​Befehl’ are syn­onyms for ‘Halt-​​Befehl’. In French ‘ordre d’arret’ is an all-​​encompassing term. EN 1088:96, §3.2

  2. guard asso­ci­ated with an inter­lock­ing device so that, together with the con­trol sys­tem of the machine, the fol­low­ing func­tions are performed:
    • the haz­ardous machine func­tions “cov­ered” by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed;
    • if the guard is opened while haz­ardous machine func­tions are oper­at­ing, a stop com­mand is given;
    • when the guard is closed, the haz­ardous machine func­tions “cov­ered” by the guard can oper­ate. The clo­sure of the guard does not by itself start the haz­ardous machine func­tions. ISO 12100:2010, 3.27.4

[See Guard]

Interlocking guard with guard lock­ing— Guard asso­ci­ated with an inter­lock­ing device and a guard lock­ing device so that:

    • the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can­not oper­ate until the guard is closed and locked;
    • the guard remains closed and locked until the risk of injury from the haz­ardous machine func­tions has passed;
    • when the guard is closed and locked, the haz­ardous machine func­tions ‘cov­ered’ by the guard can oper­ate, but the clo­sure and lock­ing of the guard do not by them­selves ini­ti­ate their operation.

EN 1088:96, §3.3 [See Guard] [See Guard Locking Device]

inter­lock­ing guard with a start func­tion (con­trol guard) — spe­cial form of an inter­lock­ing guard which, once it has reached its closed posi­tion, gives a com­mand to ini­ti­ate the haz­ardous machine function(s) with­out the use of a sep­a­rate start con­trol. NOTE ISO 12100:2010, 6.3.3.2.5 gives detailed pro­vi­sions regard­ing the con­di­tion of use. ISO 12100:2010, 3.27.6

(elec­tri­cally) instructed per­son — per­son ade­quately advised or super­vised by elec­tri­cally skilled per­sons to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which elec­tro­heat­ing instal­la­tions can cre­ate (oper­at­ing and main­te­nance staff)

[IEC 60050–826:2004, 826−18−02, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.7

Isolated (as applied to loca­tion) — Not read­ily acces­si­ble to per­sons unless spe­cial means for access are used. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

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J

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K

Knock — A heavy, loud, rep­e­ti­tious sound, like a knock on the door. Ford Motor Company

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L

like­li­hood — chance of some­thing happening

NOTE 1 In risk man­age­ment ter­mi­nol­ogy, the word “like­li­hood” is used to refer to the chance of some­thing hap­pen­ing, whether defined, mea­sured or deter­mined objec­tively or sub­jec­tively, qual­i­ta­tively or quan­ti­ta­tively, and described using gen­eral terms or math­e­mat­i­cally [such as a prob­a­bil­ity (3.6.1.4) or a fre­quency (3.6.1.5) over a given time period].

NOTE 2 The English term “like­li­hood” does not have a direct equiv­a­lent in some lan­guages; instead, the equiv­a­lent of the term “prob­a­bil­ity” is often used. However, in English, “prob­a­bil­ity” is often nar­rowly inter­preted as a math­e­mat­i­cal term. Therefore, in risk man­age­ment ter­mi­nol­ogy, “like­li­hood” is used with the intent that it should have the same broad inter­pre­ta­tion as the term “prob­a­bil­ity” has in many lan­guages other than English.

Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.1. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009

Listed — Equipment, mate­ri­als, or ser­vices included in a list pub­lished by an orga­ni­za­tion that is accept­able to the author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion and con­cerned with eval­u­a­tion of prod­ucts or ser­vices, that main­tains peri­odic inspec­tion of pro­duc­tion of listed equip­ment or mate­ri­als or peri­odic eval­u­a­tion of ser­vices, and whose list­ing states that either the equip­ment, mate­r­ial, or ser­vice meets appro­pri­ate des­ig­nated stan­dards or has been tested and found suit­able for a spec­i­fied purpose.

Informational Note: The means for iden­ti­fy­ing listed equip­ment may vary for each orga­ni­za­tion con­cerned with prod­uct eval­u­a­tion, some of which do not rec­og­nize equip­ment as listed unless it is also labeled. Use of the sys­tem employed by the list­ing orga­ni­za­tion allows the author­ity hav­ing juris­dic­tion to iden­tify a listed product.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Live — elec­tri­cally con­nected to a source of volt­age dif­fer­ence, or elec­tri­cally charged so as to have a volt­age dif­fer­ent from that of the earth; the term may be used in place of the term “current-​​carrying”, where the intent is clear, to avoid rep­e­ti­tion of the longer term. CSA SPE-1000:99, §2

Live Parts — Energized con­duc­tive com­po­nents. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Lockout

  1. place­ment of a lock or tag on an energy-​​isolating device in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, thereby indi­cat­ing that the energy-​​isolating device is not to be oper­ated until removal of the lock or tag in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure. CSA Z460, 2005
  2. a mechan­i­cal means of lock­ing that uses an indi­vid­u­ally keyed lock to secure an energy-​​isolating device in a posi­tion that pre­vents ener­giza­tion of a machine, equip­ment, or a process. CSA Z460
  3. The place­ment of a lock­out device on an energy iso­lat­ing device, in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, ensur­ing that the energy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled can­not be oper­ated until the lock­out device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

Lockout device

  1. A pos­i­tive means such as a lock that secures an energy iso­lat­ing device in a posi­tion that pre­vents the ener­giz­ing of a machine, equip­ment or process. ANSI Z244.1–2003
  2. A device that uti­lizes a pos­i­tive means such as a lock, either key or com­bi­na­tion type, to hold an energy iso­lat­ing device in the safe posi­tion and pre­vent the ener­giz­ing of a machine or equip­ment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds. 29 CFR 1910.147

[See “Energy Isolating Device”]

[See “Tagout Device”]

lockout/​tagout — The place­ment of a lock/​tag on the energy iso­lat­ing device in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, indi­cat­ing that the energy iso­lat­ing device shall not be oper­ated until removal of the lock/​tag in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure. (The term “lockout/​tagout” allows the use of a lock­out device, a tagout device, or a com­bi­na­tion of both.) ANSI Z244.1–2003, 2.10

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M

machine or machin­ery — assem­bly, fit­ted with or intended to be fit­ted with a drive sys­tem con­sist­ing of linked parts or com­po­nents, at least one of which moves, and which are joined together for a spe­cific appli­ca­tion. NOTE 1: The term “machin­ery” also cov­ers an assem­bly of machines which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and con­trolled so that they func­tion as an inte­gral whole. ISO 12100:2010

Manual — doc­u­ment con­tain­ing user infor­ma­tion, for exam­ple instruc­tions IEC 62079:2001, 3.8

Maintenance — com­bi­na­tion of all tech­ni­cal and admin­is­tra­tive actions intended to retain an item or a prod­uct in, or restore it to, a use­ful and safe con­di­tion in which it can per­form the required func­tion; this includes super­vis­ing actions, recon­di­tion­ing, repair­ing, adjust­ing, and clean­ing [IEV 191−07−01, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.9

Mechanically Linked — applies to mechan­i­cally linked aux­il­iary con­tact ele­ments included in con­trol cir­cuit devices where actu­at­ing force is pro­vided inter­nally, such as contactor-relays. Linkage between the aux­il­iary and main con­tacts is not covered.

NOTE 1 A typ­i­cal appli­ca­tion of mechan­i­cally linked con­tact ele­ments is e.g. self-​​monitoring in machine control circuits.

NOTE 2 Mechanically linked con­tact ele­ments have pre­vi­ously been referred to as forced con­tacts, pos­i­tively acti­vated con­tacts, or linked con­tacts, or, in French: “con­tacts for­cés” or in German: “Zwangsgeführte Kontakte”.

NOTE 3 Control cir­cuit devices actu­ated exter­nally (e.g. push-​​button or limit-​​switches) do not have an actu­at­ing force lim­ited to a max­i­mum value (see L.8.4 a) 2)), so they can­not have mechan­i­cally linked con­tact ele­ments. For such devices, safety appli­ca­tions gen­er­ally use con­tacts with “direct open­ing action” (see Annex K). IEC 60947−5−1, Ed. 3, 2009 §L.1.1

Moan — A con­stant, low-​​frequency tone. Also described as a hum. Ford Motor Company

Movable guarda guard gen­er­ally con­nected by mechan­i­cal means (e.g., hinges or slides) to the machine frame or an adja­cent fixed ele­ment and that can be opened with­out the use of tools. The open­ing and clos­ing of this type of guard may be pow­ered. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

[See Guard]

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N

Neutral Conductor — The con­duc­tor con­nected to the neu­tral point of a sys­tem that is intended to carry cur­rent under nor­mal con­di­tions. National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

Neutral Point — The com­mon point on a wye-​​connection in a polyphase sys­tem or mid­point on a single-​​phase, 3-​​wire sys­tem, or mid­point of a single-​​phase por­tion of a 3-​​phase delta sys­tem, or a mid­point of a 3-​​wire, direct-​​current system.

Informational Note: At the neu­tral point of the sys­tem, the vec­to­r­ial sum of the nom­i­nal volt­ages from all other phases within the sys­tem that uti­lize the neu­tral, with respect to the neu­tral point, is zero potential.

National Electrical Code. NFPA 70. National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park. 2014.

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P

per­sonal pro­tec­tive equip­ment — spe­cial device or appli­ance designed to be worn or held by an indi­vid­ual for pro­tec­tion against one or more health and safety haz­ards IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.27

Ping — A short-​​duration, high-​​frequency sound, which has a slight echo. Ford Motor Company

Pitch — The phys­i­cal qual­ity of sound that relates to its fre­quency. Pitch increases as fre­quency increases and vice versa. Ford Motor Company

Pinch Point — Any point other than the trap­ping space at which it is pos­si­ble for a part of the body to be caught between the mov­ing parts of a machine or between mov­ing and sta­tion­ary parts of a machine or aux­il­iary equip­ment, result­ing in injury. E2.19 Pinch Point. The term “pinch point,” as used in this stan­dard, refers only to haz­ards that may exist as a part of the machine or its asso­ci­ated parts. The expres­sion is not used to describe haz­ards caused by the tool­ing at the trap­ping space, since these haz­ards are a dif­fer­ent prob­lem and require dif­fer­ent treat­ment. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.19

[See ‘Ingoing Pinch Point’]

pos­i­tive drive — a con­nec­tion between actu­a­tor and con­tact ele­ment such that the force applied to the actu­a­tor is directly trans­mit­ted to the con­tact ele­ment IEC 60947−5−1, Ed. 3, 2009 §2.4.4.4
[Also see “Direct Drive”]

Positively Guided — Deprecated. See “Mechanically Linked

Precautionary prin­ci­ple (law & policy)

  1. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple ensures that a sub­stance or activ­ity pos­ing a threat to the envi­ron­ment is pre­vented from adversely affect­ing the envi­ron­ment, even if there is no con­clu­sive sci­en­tific proof link­ing that par­tic­u­lar sub­stance or activ­ity to envi­ron­men­tal dam­age. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple is a guid­ing prin­ci­ple. Its pur­pose is to encourage-​​perhaps even oblige-​​decision mak­ers to con­sider the likely harm­ful effects of their activ­i­ties on the envi­ron­ment before they pur­sue those activ­i­ties. James Cameron and Juli Abouchar, The Precautionary Principle: A Fundamental Principle of Law and Policy for the Protection of the Global Environment, 14 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 1 (1991), http://​lawdig​i​tal​com​mons​.bc​.edu/​i​c​l​r​/​v​o​l​1​4​/​i​s​s​1/2. Get this paper through Google Scholar.
  2. The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple or pre­cau­tion­ary approach states that if an action or pol­icy has a sus­pected risk of caus­ing harm to the pub­lic or to the envi­ron­ment, in the absence of sci­en­tific con­sen­sus that the action or pol­icy is harm­ful, the bur­den of proof that it is not harm­ful falls on those tak­ing the action. Precautionary prin­ci­ple — Wikipedia
  3. In order to pro­tect the envi­ron­ment, the pre­cau­tion­ary approach shall be widely applied by States accord­ing to their capa­bil­i­ties. Where there are threats of seri­ous or irre­versible dam­age, lack of full sci­en­tific cer­tainty shall not be used as a rea­son for post­pon­ing cost-​​effective mea­sures to pre­vent envi­ron­men­tal degra­da­tion. 1992 Rio Conference. Note — This ver­sion of the prin­ci­ple is some­times referred to as the ‘weak pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple’. Origin — German, 1930, Vorsorgeprinzip.
    Note — The pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple is often cited in OHS work and could be para­phrased, “If a prod­uct, process or ser­vice is sus­pected of caus­ing harm to peo­ple in the work­place, in the absence of sci­en­tific con­sen­sus that the prod­uct, process or ser­vice is harm­ful, lack of full sci­en­tific cer­tainty shall not be used as a rea­son for post­pon­ing mea­sures to reduce the risk of harm to peo­ple in the work­place. Those respon­si­ble for intro­duc­ing the prod­uct, process or ser­vice into the work­place shall bear the bur­den of proof of safety relat­ing to the safety of the prod­uct, process or ser­vice.“
    Note: This is a ver­sion of the “strong pre­cau­tion­ary prin­ci­ple.” — Doug Nix

Point of Operation — That point or area where the cut­ting edge(s) of the tool is in con­tact with the work­piece. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.20

prob­a­bil­ity — mea­sure of the chance of occur­rence expressed as a num­ber between 0 and 1, where 0 is impos­si­bil­ity and 1 is absolute certainty

NOTE See def­i­n­i­tion 3.6.1.1, Note 2.
Risk man­age­ment — Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, §3.6.1.4. ISO International Organization for Standardization. 2009

Protective mea­sure — means used to reduce risk NOTE Protective mea­sures include risk reduc­tion by inher­ently safe design, pro­tec­tive devices, per­sonal pro­tec­tive equip­ment, infor­ma­tion for use and instal­la­tion, and train­ing. ISO Guide 51:99

See also “Complementary Protective Measures

pro­tec­tive con­duc­tor — (iden­ti­fi­ca­tion: PE) con­duc­tor pro­vided for pur­poses of safety, for exam­ple pro­tec­tion against elec­tric shock
NOTE In an elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion, the PE con­duc­tor is nor­mally also con­sid­ered as a pro­tec­tive earth­ing conductor.

[I EC 60050–195: 1998, 195–02-09], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.38

pro­tec­tive earth­ing [pro­tec­tive ground­ing (US)] — earth­ing a point or points in a sys­tem or in an instal­la­tion or in equip­ment, for pur­poses of elec­tri­cal safety

[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–01-11], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.39

pro­tec­tive equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem (PEBS) — equipo­ten­tial bond­ing sys­tem pro­vid­ing protective-​​equipotential-​​bonding

[IEC 60050–826:2004, 826–13-31], EN 60519–1, 3.40

pro­tec­tive earth­ing con­duc­tor [pro­tec­tive ground­ing con­duc­tor (US)] — pro­tec­tive con­duc­tor pro­vided for pro­tec­tive earthing

[IEC 60050–195:1998, 195–02-11], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.41

Positive mode actu­a­tion — If a mov­ing mechan­i­cal com­po­nent inevitably moves another com­po­nent along with it, either by direct con­tact or via rigid ele­ments, the sec­ond com­po­nent is said to be actu­ated in the pos­i­tive mode (or positively)by the first one. EN 1088:1996, §3.6

Positive open­ing oper­a­tion of a con­tact ele­ment — The achieve­ment of con­tact sep­a­ra­tion as the direct result of a spec­i­fied move­ment of the switch actu­a­tor through non-​​resilient mem­bers (e.g. not depen­dent upon springs). (2.2 of chap­ter 3 ‘Special require­ments for con­trol switches with pos­i­tive open­ing oper­a­tion’ of EN 60947−5−1: 1991). NOTE: For fluid power, the equiv­a­lent con­cept may be called ‘pos­i­tive mode inter­rup­tion’. EN 1088:1996, §3.7

Pumping Feel — A slow, puls­ing move­ment. Ford Motor Company

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R

rated volt­age — volt­age for which an instal­la­tion (or a part thereof) is designed EN 60519–1:2011, 3.42

Rattle — A ran­dom and momen­tary or short-​​duration noise. Ford Motor Company

Reactor — The com­po­nent, or part, that receives a vibra­tion from an orig­i­na­tor and con­duc­tor and reacts to the vibra­tion by mov­ing. Ford Motor Company

Reliability — abil­ity of a machine or its com­po­nents or equip­ment to per­form a required func­tion under spec­i­fied con­di­tions and for a given period of time with­out fail­ing ISO 12100:2010 §3.2

Rustling — Intermittent sound of vary­ing fre­quency, sounds sim­i­lar to shuf­fling through leaves. Ford Motor Company

Reasonably fore­see­able misuse

  1. use of a prod­uct, process or ser­vice in a way not intended by the sup­plier, but which may result from read­ily pre­dictable human behav­iour [3.14 of ISO/​IEC Guide 51] IEC 62079:2001, 3.1
  2. use of a prod­uct in a way not described as intended use in the instruc­tions for use, but which may result from read­ily pre­dictable human behav­iour
    [SOURCE: ISO/​IEC Guide 51 : 1999, def­i­n­i­tion 3.14, mod­i­fied] IEC 82079–1, 2012, §3.31

Residual risk — risk remain­ing after pro­tec­tive mea­sures have been taken. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Risk

  1. com­bi­na­tion of the prob­a­bil­ity of occur­rence of harm and the sever­ity of that harm ISO Guide 51:99
  2. (of harm to an indi­vid­ual) a com­bi­na­tion of the prob­a­bil­ity and the degree of the pos­si­ble injury or dam­age to health in a haz­ardous sit­u­a­tion. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Risk analy­sis — a com­bi­na­tion of the deter­mi­na­tion of the lim­its of the machine, haz­ard iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, and risk esti­ma­tion. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Risk assess­ment — the over­all process of risk analy­sis and risk eval­u­a­tion. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Risk esti­ma­tion — a judg­ment, on the basis of risk analy­sis, of whether ade­quate risk reduc­tion has been achieved. CSA Z432-​​04, §3

Robot — Originally from the Czech, rob­ota, mean­ing drudgery.

  1. A mechan­i­cal device that some­times resem­bles a human and is capa­ble of per­form­ing a vari­ety of often com­plex human tasks on com­mand or by being pro­grammed in advance.
  2. A machine or device that oper­ates auto­mat­i­cally or by remote control.
  3. A per­son who works mechan­i­cally with­out orig­i­nal thought, espe­cially one who responds auto­mat­i­cally to the com­mands of others.

Read more: http://​www​.answers​.com/​t​o​p​i​c​/​r​o​b​o​t​#​i​x​z​z​1​C​6​9​7​Z​eGf [See Industrial Robot]

Roughness — A medium-​​frequency vibra­tion. A slightly higher fre­quency than a shake. This type of vibra­tion is usu­ally related to dri­ve­train com­po­nents. Ford Motor Company

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S

safety

  1. free­dom from unac­cept­able risk
    NOTE Adapted from ISO/​IEC Guide 2:1996, def­i­n­i­tion 2.5. ISO Guide 51:99
  2. free­dom from unac­cept­able risk of harm
    NOTE In stan­dard­iza­tion, the safety of prod­ucts, processes and ser­vices is gen­er­ally con­sid­ered with a view to achiev­ing the opti­mum bal­ance of a num­ber of fac­tors, includ­ing non-​​technical fac­tors such as human behav­iour, that will elim­i­nate avoid­able risks of harm to per­sons and goods to an accept­able degree. ISO Guide 2:2004, §2.5

safety–related part of a con­trol sys­tem (SRP/​CS) — part of a con­trol sys­tem that responds to safety-​​related input sig­nals and gen­er­ates safety-​​related out­put signals.

NOTE 1 The com­bined safety-​​related parts of a con­trol sys­tem start at the point where the safety-​​related input sig­nals are ini­ti­ated (includ­ing e.g. the actu­at­ing cam and the roller of the posi­tion switch) and end at the out­put of the power con­trol ele­ments (includ­ing, for exam­ple, the main con­tacts of a con­tac­tor). NOTE 2 If mon­i­tor­ing sys­tems are used for diag­nos­tics, they are also con­sid­ered as SRP/​CS. ISO 13849–1:2006, 3.1.1

Service — set of func­tions offered to users by supplier’s orga­ni­za­tion sup­port­ing clients with main­te­nance [IEV 191−01−04, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.16

sever­itySee Wiktionary.

Shake — A low-​​frequency vibra­tion, usu­ally with vis­i­ble com­po­nent move­ment. Usually relates to tires, wheels, brake drums or brake discs if it is vehi­cle speed sen­si­tive, or engine if it is engine speed sen­si­tive. Also referred to as a shimmy or wob­ble. Ford Motor Company

Shimmy — An abnor­mal vibra­tion or wob­bling, felt as a side-​​to-​​side motion of the steer­ing wheel in the dri­ve­shaft rota­tion. Also described as wad­dle. Ford Motor Company

Shudder — A low-​​frequency vibra­tion that is felt through the steer­ing wheel or seat dur­ing light brake appli­ca­tion. Ford Motor Company

sin­gle fault con­di­tion — con­di­tion in which one means for pro­tec­tion against haz­ard is defec­tive
NOTE If a sin­gle fault con­di­tion results unavoid­ably in another sin­gle fault con­di­tion, the two fail­ures are con­sid­ered as one sin­gle fault con­di­tion.
[IEC 60050–851 :2008, 851–11-20], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.45

Skilled per­son

  1. per­son with rel­e­vant edu­ca­tion and expe­ri­ence to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which oper­a­tion or main­te­nance of a prod­uct can cre­ate [IEV 195−04−01 and 3.52 of IEC 60204–1, mod­i­fied] IEC 62079:2001, 3.17
  2. indi­vid­ual with rel­e­vant tech­ni­cal edu­ca­tion, train­ing and/​or expe­ri­ence enabling him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards occur­ring dur­ing use of a prod­uct [SOURCE: IEV 195−04−01 , mod­i­fied and IEC 60204–1 :2005, def­i­n­i­tion 3.53, mod­i­fied] IEC82079-​​1, 2012, §3.37
  3. (elec­tri­cally) skilled per­son — per­son with rel­e­vant edu­ca­tion and expe­ri­ence to enable him or her to per­ceive risks and to avoid haz­ards which elec­tro­heat­ing instal­la­tions can cre­ate
    [IEC 60050–826:2004, 826−18−01, mod­i­fied], EN 60519–1:2011, 3.8

Slap — A res­o­nance from flat sur­faces, such as safety belt web­bing or door trim pan­els. Ford Motor Company

State of the art — devel­oped stage of tech­ni­cal capa­bil­ity at a given time as regards prod­ucts, processes and services, based on the rel­e­vant con­sol­i­dated find­ings of sci­ence, tech­nol­ogy and expe­ri­ence ISO Guide 2:2004, §1.4 See “Acknowledged Rule of Technology”

Standard - Any norm, con­ven­tion or require­ment Technical Standard, [online]. Wikipedia. Available: http://​en​.wikipedia​.org/​w​i​k​i​/​T​e​c​h​n​i​c​a​l​_​s​t​a​n​d​ard. Accessed: 13-​​Jun-​​13.

Standard Types (ISO)

  • type-​​A stan­dard - Basic safety stan­dard. Standard giv­ing basic con­cepts, prin­ci­ples for design and gen­eral aspects that can be applied to machin­ery.Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.1. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
  • type-​​B stan­dard - Generic safety stan­dard. Standard deal­ing with one safety aspect or one type of safe­guard that can be used across a wide range of machin­ery.
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.2. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.

    • type-​​B1 stan­dard - Type-​​B stan­dard on par­tic­u­lar safety aspects (for exam­ple, safety dis­tances, sur­face tem­per­a­ture, noise).
      Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
      ISO Guide 78, 3.2.1. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
    • type-​​B2 stan­dard - Type-​​B stan­dard on safe­guards (for exam­ple, two-​​hand con­trol devices, inter­lock­ing devices, pres­sure sen­si­tive devices, guards).
      Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.
      ISO Guide 78, 3.2.2. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.
  • type-​​C stan­dard - Machine safety stan­dard. Standard deal­ing with detailed safety require­ments for a par­tic­u­lar machine or group of machines.Note 1 to entry: See ISO 12100:2010, Introduction.Note 2 to entry: The term “group of machines” means machines hav­ing a sim­i­lar intended use and sim­i­lar haz­ards, haz­ardous sit­u­a­tions or haz­ardous events.
    ISO Guide 78, 3.3. ISO International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 2012.

Stopping time (time for haz­ard elim­i­na­tion) — The period between the point at which the inter­lock­ing device ini­ti­ates the stop com­mand and the point at which the risk from haz­ardous machine func­tions has passed EN 1088–1996, §3.8

Squeak — A high-​​pitched tran­sient sound, sim­i­lar to rub­bing fin­gers against a clean win­dow. Ford Motor Company

Squeal — A long-​​duration, high-​​pitched noise. Ford Motor Company

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T

Tap — A light, rhyth­mic or inter­mit­tent ham­mer­ing sound, sim­i­lar to tap­ping a pen­cil on a table edge. Ford Motor Company

tagout — The place­ment of a tagout device on an energy iso­lat­ing device, in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, to indi­cate that the energy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­ated until the tagout device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

tagout device

  1. A promi­nent warn­ing means such as a tag and a means of attach­ment, which can be securely fas­tened to an energy iso­lat­ing device to indi­cate that the energy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­ated until the tagout device is removed. ANSI Z244.1–2003, 2.20.1
  2. A promi­nent warn­ing device, such as a tag and a means of attach­ment, which can be securely fas­tened to an energy iso­lat­ing device in accor­dance with an estab­lished pro­ce­dure, to indi­cate that the energy iso­lat­ing device and the equip­ment being con­trolled may not be oper­ated until the tagout device is removed. 29 CFR 1910.147

Thump — A dull beat caused by 2 items strik­ing together. Ford Motor Company

Tick — A rhyth­mic tap, sim­i­lar to a clock noise. Ford Motor Company

Tip-​​In Moan — A light moan­ing noise heard dur­ing light vehi­cle accel­er­a­tion, usu­ally between 40–100 km/​h (25−65 mph). Ford Motor Company

tol­er­a­ble risk — risk which is accepted in a given con­text based on the cur­rent val­ues of soci­ety ISO Guide 51:99

MS101 Note: In our opin­ion, tol­er­a­ble risk bears a require­ment for con­tin­u­ous mon­i­tor­ing and improve­ment that is com­pletely missed in this def­i­n­i­tion. Here is an alter­nate def­i­n­i­tion for tol­er­a­ble risk that bet­ter encom­passes this require­ment: tol­er­a­ble risk — risk that may be endured in a given con­text based on cur­rent infor­ma­tion and val­ues of soci­ety, sub­ject to con­tin­u­ous mon­i­tor­ing and reduction.

[see Tolerable] See ‘accept­able risk’.

Transient — A noise or vibra­tion that is momen­tary, a short dura­tion. Ford Motor Company

Trapping Space — The space where it would be pos­si­ble for any part of an individual’s body to be trapped between the cut­ter or its mount­ing and the work­piece or fix­ture, result­ing in injury. ANSI B11.8–1983 (R1999), §2.26

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U

unex­pected start-​​up or unin­tended start-​​up — any start-​​up which, because of its unex­pected nature, gen­er­ates a risk to persons

NOTE 1: This can be caused by, for example:

    • a start com­mand which is the result of a fail­ure in, or an exter­nal influ­ence on, the con­trol system;
    • a start com­mand gen­er­ated by inop­por­tune action on a start con­trol or other parts of the machine such as a sen­sor or a power con­trol element;
    • restora­tion of the power sup­ply after an interruption;
    • external/​internal influ­ences (grav­ity, wind, self-​​ignition in inter­nal com­bus­tion engines, etc.) on parts of the machine.

NOTE 2: Machine start-​​up dur­ing nor­mal sequence of an auto­matic cycle is not unin­tended, but can be con­sid­ered as being unex­pected from the point of view of the oper­a­tor, Prevention of acci­dents in this case involves the use of safe­guard­ing mea­sures (see 6.3). NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 14118:2000, def­i­n­i­tion 3.2. ISO 12100:2010

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V

Vibration

  • Any motion, shak­ing or trem­bling, that can be felt or seen when an object moves back and forth or up and down. Ford Motor Company
  • The act of vibrat­ing, or the state of being vibrated, or in vibra­tory motion; quick motion to and fro; oscil­la­tion, as of a pen­du­lum or musi­cal string. 1913 Webster’s Dictionary
  • (Physics) A lim­ited rec­i­p­ro­cat­ing motion of a par­ti­cle of an elas­tic body or medium in alter­nately oppo­site direc­tions from its posi­tion of equi­lib­rium, when that equi­lib­rium has been dis­turbed, as when a stretched cord or other body pro­duces musi­cal notes, or par­ti­cles of air trans­mit sounds to the ear. The path of the par­ti­cle may be in a straight line, in a cir­cu­lar arc, or in any curve whatever.Note: Vibration and oscil­la­tion are both used, in mechan­ics, of the swing­ing, or ris­ing and falling, motion of a sus­pended or bal­anced body; the lat­ter term more appro­pri­ately, as sig­ni­fy­ing such motion pro­duced by grav­ity, and of any degree of slow­ness, while the for­mer applies espe­cially to the quick, short motion to and fro which results from elas­tic­ity, or the action of mol­e­c­u­lar forces among the par­ti­cles of a body when dis­turbed from their posi­tion of rest, as in a spring. 1913 Webster’s Dictionary
  • (n) The act of vibrat­ing Wordnet 3.0
  • (physics) a reg­u­lar peri­odic vari­a­tion in value about a mean. Wordnet 3.0

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W

Whine — A con­stant, high-​​pitched noise. Also described as a screech. Ford Motor Company

Whistle — High-​​pitched noise with a very nar­row fre­quency band. Examples of whis­tle noises are a tur­bocharger or air flow around an antenna. Ford Motor Company

Wind Noise — Any noise caused by air move­ment in, out or around the vehi­cle. Ford Motor Company

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X

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Y

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Z

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